Volume 3, Issue 1, July 2014 (Title of Paper )

Page No.

Effects of Process Parameters and Investigation Of Springback Using Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Arati M. Lokhande, Dr. Vilas M. Nandedkar

Abstract— One of the most sensitive features of sheet metal forming is the elastic recovery during unloading called springback. Sheet metals are prone to some amount of springback depending on elastic deformation. Variations in the mechanical and dimensional properties of the incoming material, lubrication and other forming process parameters are the main causes of springback variation. Accurate prediction and controlling of springback is essential in the design of tools for sheet metal forming. This paper gives the prediction of springback for U bending using FEA. In this research the material properties for IS513D are used. Sheet metal with four different thicknesses such as 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0mm are used. Also four different blankholder forces are used. The effects of these parameters on sheet metal are studied and springback is investigated.

Keywords— FEA, blankholder force, sheet thickness, springback, U- bending


[1] Bhadpiroon Sresomroeng, Pakorn Chumrum, Jiraporn Sripraserdand Varunee Premanond, Sidewall-curl prediction in U-bending process of advanced high strength steel, The Second TSME International Conference on Mechanical Engineering 19-21 October, 2011, Krabi.

[2] Gang Liu, Zhongqin Lin, Youxia Bao, and J. Cao, Eliminating Springback Error in U-Shaped Part Forming by Variable Blankholder Force, 25 September 2000; in revised form 15 January 2002

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[4] A. Behrouzi, M. Shakeri, B. Mollaei Dariani, Inverse Analysis of Springback in Sheet Metal Forming by Finite Element Method, EngOpt 2008- International Conference on Engineering Optimization, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 01 - 05 June 2008.

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[6] Effects of forming speed on the springback using finite element methods, Yanshan Lou, Jin Sung Kim, Hoon Huh and Sung-Ho Park

[7] Peng Chen, Muammer Koc¸ Simulation of springback variation in forming of advanced high strength steels, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 190 (2007) 189–198

[8] Sharad Gawade, Investigation of Springback using FEA, IDDRG, 2012

[9] Hyperform User Manual


Feedstocks, Production, Properties and Blending Effect of Biodiesel: A Review

Authors: Bibha Boro, Sanjay Basumatary, Pradyumna K. Choudhury, Biswajit Gogoi

Abstract— Demands for energy have been increasing day by day which has led to the depletion of global fossil fuel reserves at an exponentially increasing rate. Alternative fuels like biodiesel seem to be favorable solutions for near future. Renewable diesel fuel, termed as biodiesel, is produced from various edible and non-edible feedstocks. Various methods for production of biodiesel have been used out of which transesterification method, has been reported mostly in many literatures. Despite its many advantages, biodiesel possesses some serious negative features for which blending of biodiesel with petroleum diesel fuels becomes necessary to make it more compatible as conventional fuel. Decrease in the emission of hydrocarbons is remarkable with biodiesel blending that could be observed along with enhanced thermal efficiency of the engine. This paper is an attempt to review various sources for biodiesel production, properties, and use of biodiesel by blending as substitute of the diesel fuel.

Keywords—Biodiesel, renewable, biodiesel blending


[1] Leung, D., Wu, X., Leung, M., 2010, ―A review on biodiesel production using catalyzed transesterification‖, Applied Energy, 87, 1083-1095.

[2] Balat, M., 2011, ―Potential alternatives to edible oils for biodiesel production-A review of current work‖, Energy conversion and Management, 52, 1479-1492.

[3] Fukuda, H., Kondo, A., Noda, H., 2010, ―Biodiesel fuel production by transesterification of oils‖, J Biosci Bioeng, 92, 405–416.

[4] Basumatary, S., 2013, ―Non-Conventional Seed Oils as Potential Feedstocks for Future Biodiesel Industries: A Brief Review‖, Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, 3(5), 99-103.

[5] Basumatary, S., 2012-2013, ―Non-Edible Oils of Assam as Potential Feedstocks for Biodiesel Production: A Review‖, J. Chem. Bio. Phy. Sci., 3(1), 551-558.

[6] Barua, P., Dutta, K., Basumatary, S., Deka, Dinesh C., Deka, Dibakar C., 2014, ―Seed Oils from Non-conventional Sources in North-east India: Potential Feedstock for Production of Biodiesel‖, Natural Product Research, 28(8), 577-580.

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[8] Basumatary, S., 2013, ―Heterogeneous catalyst derived from natural resources for biodiesel production: A review‖, Res. J. Chem. Sci., 3(6), 95-101.

[9] Singh, S.P., Singh, D., 2010, ―Biodiesel production through the use of different sources and characterization of oils and their esters as the substitute of diesel: A review‖, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14, 200-216.

[10] Engelman, H.W., Guenther, D.A., Silvis, T.W., Vegetable oil as a diesel fuel. Diesel and gas engine power division of ASME paper number 78-DGP-19. New York, NY: ASME; 1978.

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[13] Demirbas, A., 2007, ―Importance of biodiesel as transportation fuel‖, Energy Policy, 35, 4661-4670.

[14] Saxena, P., Jawale, S., Joshipura. M., 2013, ―A review on prediction of properties of biodiesel and blends of biodiesel‖, Procedia Engineering, 51, 395-402.

[15] Zhu, L., Cheung, C.S., Zhang, W.G., Huang, Z., 2011, ―Effect of charge dilution on gaseous and particulate emissions from a diesel engine fueled with biodiesel blended with methanol and ethanol‖, Applied Thermal Engineering, 31, 2271-2278.

[16] Singh, S.P., Singh, D., 2010, ―Biodiesel production through the use of different sources and characterization of oils and their esters as the substitute of biodiesel: a review‖. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12:200–16

[17] Johnston, M., Holloway. T., 2007―A Global Comparison of National Biodiesel Production Potentials‖, Policy Analysis, 41, 7967-7973.

[18] Demirbas, A., 2009, ―Progress and recent trends in biodiesel fuels‖, Energy Conversion and Management, 50, 14-34.

[19] Taylor, G., 2008, ―Biofuels and the biorefinery concept‖, Energy Policy, 36, 4406-4409.

[20] Pinzi, S., Garcia, I.L., Lopez-Gimenez, F.J., Luque de Castro, M.D., Dorado, G., Dorado, M.P., 2009, ―The Ideal Vegetable Oil-based Biodiesel Composition: A Review of Social, Economical and Technical Implications‖, Energy & Fuels, 23, 2325-2341.


Security Algorithms in Cryptography and Their Network Attacks

Authors: Jitender Singh, Monika

Abstract–Cryptography algorithms can be divided in to two groups that are Symmetric key (also called as Secret key) algorithms and Asymmetric algorithms (also called as Public key). In Symmetric key same is used at both sides that is at sender side as well as receiver side .that is sender encrypt the message with same key as the receiver uses to decrypt the message . Where as in Asymmetric key two different keys are used by sender and receiver to encrypt or decrypt the message. Sender uses the Public key to encrypt the message whereas receiver uses the private key to decrypt the message. Public is used as publically but private key is used by individually. Hence three keys are used in cryptography that is public key, secret key and private key [1]. Cryptanalyst studies the algorithm, finding its pattern and weakness while cryptographer set to try to secure the message by applying the algorithm. Various technologies are used to secure the message like AES, DES, DSS, Encryption, and RSA. Symmetric key also uses the Traditional cipher, Substitution cipher, Mon alphabetic cipher, poly alphabetic cipher, Shift cipher, Transposition cipher, Simple modern cipher, Xor cipher, Rotation cipher, Substitution cipher s-box, transposition cipher p-box, including expansion permutation, compression permutation, straight permutation, modern round cipher, Data Encryption standard (DES), triple DES, Advanced Encryption standard (AES) other ciphers like IDEA, BLOWFISH, RC-5, CAST-128,while Asymmetric approach use RSA and Diffie-Hellman algorithms in cryptography.

Keyword- Cryptanalyst, cryptographer, computational complexity, OSPA protocol, Cryptosystem, field theory, transposition.


[1] Stalling William on ,” cryptography and network security”.

[2] Behroaz A.Forouzan on,” Data Communication and networking”.

[3] Paul C. Kocher “Asymmetric algoritms and other systems using various timing attacks”.

[4] Charles P.Pflegger, Shari Lawerence Pflegger “security in computing” 2007.

[5] Sumedha Kaushik and Ankur Singhal “network security using cryptographic techniques” International journal of advanced research in computer science and software engineering. Vol. 2 ISS-12, Dec. 2012.

[6] Punita Meelu and sitender Mali ”AES asymmetric key cryptographic system,” International journal of information technology 2011.

[7] Sanchez- Avila, C.Sanchez-Reilllol, R ”comparison between AES and DES,” 35th International conference on security technique 2001.

[8] Pflegger and lawerence “various attacks” 2007.

[9] Zhang et al “Detection for Application on Level Attacks” proceeding of 2007.

[10] Cheng-Chi-Lee, Chia-Hsin-Liu and MinShaiang Hwang “guessing of attacks on strong password and authentication protocol”.


Text Classification Using PSO & Other Technique

Authors: Tanya Taneja, Balraj Sharma

Abstract - Categories for classification of text are predefined according to these categories all text data is classified. We require classifying text to manage and search any data in database. There are many techniques available in market to classifying the text. Now days every website has overloaded text in database as like customer support websites, news website etc.so in this type of websites text need to classify. In news websites it’s necessary to maintain record of old and each news in database. The news can be classifying on the basis of predefined categories of type crime news, sports news, election news, entertainments etc. every technique that exists in real like SVM, Naïve Bayes, PSO and Neural classifiers, working well at a level with some limitations. In this paper we are going to discuss about these techniques and conclude with the comparison of results find out which technique can perform well.

Keyword- Text Classification, SVM, Naïve Bayes, Neural, News, Mining, PSO


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[3 ] Vladimir N. Vapnik,”The Nature of Statistical Learning Theory”, Springer, New York, 1995.

[4 ] J. Kivinen, M. Warmuth, and P. Auer,”The perceptron algorithm vs. winnow: Linear vs. logarithmic mistake bounds when few input variables are relevant”, In Conference on Computational Learning Theory, 1995.


Enhancement Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks in S-MAC Protocol

Authors: Monika, Sunil Kumar

Abstract– Wireless sensor networks have emerged as an important new area in wireless technology for twenty first century. It is used in environment monitoring, agriculture and many hazardous places Wireless sensor network use battery operated computation and sensing devices. The nodes sensing all the time and transfer the sensing information to the base station and drop down battery power quickly. So the main problem is to minimize the energy consumption and make the life of wireless sensor longer. The S-MAC protocol is the solution. S-MAC protocol uses three technologies to minimize energy consumption and support self- configuration. The first, neighbouring nodes are synchronized to go to sleep periodically. Second, the synchronized neighbouring nodes make a virtual cluster to synchronise their wake-up and sleep periods so the control packet overhead is kept low. Third message passing is used to reduce contention latency and control overhead.

Keywords- S-MAC, Wireless sensor network, Energy consumption, Latency.


[1] C. - Y. Chong and S. P. Kumar , “ Sensor networks: Evolution, and challenges ” , Proceedings of the IEEE , vol. 91 , no. 8 , Aug. 2003 , pp. 1247 – 1256 .

[2] Wei Ye, Deborah Estrin, John Heidemann “An Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

[3] Baili Zhang and Lianhua Lu,, “Comparative Analysis of Medium Access Control Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks”,

[4] Chenglong Gong and Ming Zhang , “Energy-Efficient Dynamic Clustering Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks”, International Symposium on Computer Science and Computational Technology, Vol. 1, pp. 303-306, 2008.

[5] Yanju Liu , XiaoyangLiu , Ying Zhang ,Yang Yu , “MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks” International Conference on Web Information Systems and Mining Vol. 2, pp. 337-340, 23- 24 Oct.2010, ISBN: 978-1-4244-8438-6, Sanya.

[6] Robert Abo, “Performance and Verification Evaluation of S-MAC Protocol Based on Process Calculi”,

[7] “NS2 for Begginers”, Eitan Altman and Tania Jimenez, University Le de Los Andes,Merida

[8] WANG Yong Tao, WANG, “A model paper on WSN and its environmental changes”,

[9] Yujun Pang, “A New Optimization Strategy for S-MAC Protocol”


Wear Study on Hybrid Natural Fiber Polymer Composite Materials Used As Orthopaedic Implants

Authors: Dr A Thimmana Gouda, Jagadish S P, Dr K R Dinesh, Virupaksha Gouda H, Dr N Prashanth

Abstract—This paper constitutes the wear study of 2%, 24% and 36% of Hybrid Fiber (Natural fiber- Sisal, Jute and Hemp) polymer composite material used as Bio-material. Characterization of 12%, 24% & 36% Hybrid Natural fiber polymer composite material with the low density, economical for prosthetic bone with respect to biocompatibility and the mechanical behaviour of long human bones, such as Femur Bone. According to the ASTM Standard G-99 the specimen is fabricated by using the Epoxy resin- LY556 as the matrix material and the Hardener-HY 951 with the 12%, 24% and 36% of the Natural Fibers (Sisal, Jute and Hemp) as the reinforcement material with fiber weight fraction, randomly continuous long fiber orientation. By using the Hand Layup fabrication technique the specimen are prepared. The wear tests were conducted on the varying percentage standard samples prepared. The study was conducted by using a pin-on-disk apparatus and is issued under the standard ASTM G- 99. For the PIN-ON-DISK wear test conducted in this research, the specimens were a pin with a rounded tip, which is positioned perpendicular to a flat circular disk. It is found that appreciable improvements in tribological properties of the 36% Hybrid Natural fiber polymer composite material when compared with 12% and 24% Hybrid Natural fiber polymer composite material. This study suggests 36% Hybrid Natural fiber polymer composite material can be used for different applications in the human body bone replacement or orthopedic implant.

Keywords—Hand layup Fabrication Technique, Wear Resistance, Bio-Material, 12%, 24% and 36% of Hybrid Natural fiber polymer composite material, orthopaedic Implants.


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[6] K R Dinesh, Jagadish S P and A Thimmanagouda paper entitled “Characterization and Analysis of Wear Study on Sisal Fibre Reinforcement Epoxy Composite Materials Used As Orthopaedic Implant” international journal of advances in engineering & technology, Jan. 2014. ©IJAET ISSN: 22311963 vol. 6, issue 6, pp. 2745-2757

[7] D. Chandramohan et al. paper entitled “Bio composite materials based on bio polymers and natural fibers -contribution as bone implants” (ijamsar) international journal of advanced medical sciences and applied research vol no. 1, issue no. 1, 009 – 012.

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[10] K. Fujihara, 'Design of carbon / epoxy braided composite bone plate', National University of Singapore, http://iris14.cadcam.nus.edu.sg/~p81313a/phdwork.html

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[13] D. Amalraju and Dr. A.K.Shaik Dawood Fernandez Paper Entitled “Mechanical Strength Evaluation Analysis of Stainless Steel and Titanium Locking Plate for Femur Bone Fracture” IRACST – Engineering Science And Technology: An International Journal (ESTIJ), ISSN: 2250-3498, Vol.2, No. 3, June 2012

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[16] Giuseppe Cristaldi, Alberta Latteri, Giuseppe Recca and Gianluca Cicala Paper Entitled “Composites Based on Natural Fibre Fabrics” University of Catania – Department of Physical and Chemical Methodologies for Engineering, Catania-Italy. www.Intechopen.Com

[17] Dr. H G Hanumantharaju, Dr. H K Shivananda, Manjunath G Hadimani, K Suresh Kumar, S P Jagadish paper entitled “ Wear Study on SS316L, Ti-6Al-4V, PEEK,Polyurethaneand Aluminaused as Bio-Material” International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 9, September (2012)


An Impact of Investors Unpredictable Behavior on Stock Market

Authors: Anil Kharb, Monika Malik

Abstract--Behavioural finance is a part of finance that seeks to understand and explain the systematic financial market implications of psychological decision processes. It utilises knowledge of cognitive psychology, social sciences and anthropology to explain irrational investor behaviour that is not being captured by the traditional rational based models. This article, namely behavioural finance, presents a new approach in the analysis of capital markets. Behavioral finance is the study of the influence of the psychological factors on financial markets evolution. Financial investors are people with a very varied number of deviations from rational behaviour, which is the reason why there is a variety of effects, which explain market anomalies. Human beings are rational agents who attempt to maximize wealth while minimizing risk. These agents carefully assess the risk and return of all possible investment options to arrive at an investment portfolio that suits their level of risk aversion Classical finance assumes that investors are rational and they are focused to select an efficient portfolio, which means including a combination of asset classes chosen in such a manner as to achieve the greatest possible returns over the long term, under the terms of a tolerable level of risk. Behavioral finance paradigm suggests that investment decision is influenced in a large proportion by psychological and emotional factors.

Keywords- behavioral finance, capital market, classical finance, investment decision, market efficiency, psychological factors, rational behavior


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Review of Fingerprint Recognition Techniques

Authors: Ankita, Iqbaldeep Kaur

Abstract-- Biometric system that uses a single biometric indicator always uncomfortable with noisy data in user verification process. There is some kind of restriction on degree of freedom, some unacceptable error rates. With existing of these problems it’s very difficult for particular to improve the performance a biometric system. Biometric fusion mostly applied on thumb impression but now days a speech by human, iris and ear data also used. In this paper we are going to use biometric fusion techniques on fingerprint data and then with the comparison of results find a conclusion which one better. Fusion of fingerprint could be occurring either before or after matching features of finger impression data. The presented research paper deals with the comparative study of different techniques which performs fusion of information after matching.

Keywords-Biometric Fusion, Feature level fusion, BFS, PSO, GA


[1 ] Arun Ross, Anil Jain,” Information fusion in biometrics” , Pattern Recognition Letters 24 (2003) 2115–2125

[2 ] A. Rattani, D. R. Kisku, M. Bicego, Member, IEEE and M. Tistarelli,” Feature Level Fusion of Face and Fingerprint Biometrics” Paper#: 30 Title: Feature Level Fusion of Face and Fingerprint Biometrics

[3 ] Romaissaa Mazouni, Abdellatif Rahmoun,” On Comparing Verification Performances of Multimodal Biometrics Fusion Techniques”, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 33– No.7, November 2011.

[4 ] Castillo, V. C., El Debs, M. K. E., Nicoletti, M.C, 2007. Using a modified genetic algorithm to minimize the production costs for slabs of precast prestressed concrete joists. Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, vol 20 , Issue 4, pp.519-530.

[5 ] Sabra Dinerstein, Jonathan Dinerstein, Dan Ventura, 2010. Robust Multi-Modal Biometric Fusion via Multiple SVMs, In ICB '09 Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Advances in Biometrics ,pp.743-752.

[6 ] Brad Ulery, William Fellner, Peter Hallinan, Austin Hicklin, Craig Watson ,” Evaluation of Selected Biometric Fusion Techniques”, Studies of Biometric Fusion, 20 July 2006.


Implementation Steps and Significance of Fourth Generation Mobile Technology in Real World (4G)

Authors: Jitender Singh, Vikas, Shyam Sunder Yadav

Abstract–Mobile technology is improving day by day. To increase the speed of internet, different-different technologies are used now a day. The problem with 2G and 3G system is lower bandwidth. The problem in newer generation in 4G of internet services was introduced and becomes very popluer.4G is a wireless system with wide area coverage a very high throughput. It provides high spectral efficiency. 4G uses orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. Frequency band for 4G is 2-8GHz. 4G gives the ability for worldwide roaming to access cell anywhere. The problem with 3G wireless system is band width. The range of 3G systems are 144 kbps to 2 mbps. While 4G system will be fully IP based wireless internet. 4G support for multimedia, voice, internet, video, broadband services. With this paper we are going to compare the 4G service with the existing 3G, 2G and 1G services as well as the implementation of 4G services.



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[2] Mauri-rao “4G wireless Technology” NCNTE- 2012 AT C.R.I.T Vashi, Navi Mumbai.

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Experimental Investigation of Multi Cylinder Diesel Engine Using Rubber seed oil and Diesel

Authors: Dr. Hiregoudar Yerrennagoudaru, Chandragowda M, Manjunatha K, Nagaraj Basavantappa Hugar

Abstract— Petroleum based fuels play an important role in rapid depletion of conventional energy sources along with increasing demand and also major contribution to air pollution. Major portion of today’s energy demand in India is being met with fossil fuels. Therefore it is the right time for searching alternative fuels in the engines. As India is an agricultural country, there is a wide scope for the production of vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible) from different oil seeds. This paper focused only on non-edible oils like rubber seed oil as fuel for C.I engine. The main objective of this paper is to study the performance and emission characteristics of a multi cylinder, constant speed diesel engine using rubber seed oil & compared with the diesel fuel. Brief studies about the experimental setup and components have been done before the experiment started. Calculations have been done for the taken readings. A four stroke multi cylinder diesel engine was used to study the brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and emissions from zero loads to full load for both diesel and rubber seed oil.

Keywords— Diesel, Rubber seed oil, Performance, Exhaust emissions, Alternative fuels.


[1] A.S.Ramadhas, S.Jayaraj, C.Muraleedharan (2004), Characterization and effect of using rubber seed oil As fuel in the compression ignition engines, Renewable Energy 30 (2005) 795–803

[2] Kulachate Pianthong and Prachasanti Thaiyasuit (2009), Production of Biodiesel from Rubber Seed Oil and Its Effects to Engine Performances, International Conference on Energy Security and Climate Change.

[3] S.N.Harikrishnan and R.Sabarish (2014). Experimental Analysis of Direct Injection Diesel Engine Using Rubber Seed Oil, Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 20 (6): 709-714, 2014.

[4] S.Mahalingam and B.R.RameshBapu (2014). Emission analysis of di-diesel engine at different injection pressures using jatropha and rubber seed oil blended with diesel, Golden Research Thoughts ISSN 2231-5063.

[5] Gaurav Sharma, DevendraDandotiya, S.K.Agrawal (2013),Experimental Investigation of Performance Parameters of Single Cylinder IC Engine Using Mustard Oil, International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER).

[6] N.Shrivastava, S.N.Varma and M.Pandey (2012), Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine.

[7] Narasiman V, Jeyakumar S, Mani M and Guttu Ofgaa 2012, Effect of Neat Sardine Oil with Varies Blends on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine, ISSN: 2226-7522(Print) and 2305-3327 Science, Technology, and Arts Research Journal

[8] Dr.G.R.K.Sastry, K.Venkateswarlu, Dr. Syed Yousufuddin, Dr.B.S.R Murthy 2012, performance, vibration and emission analysis of diesel engine fuelled with fish oil bio diesel blends, International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology E-ISSN 0976-3945.

[9] Bhabani Prasanna Pattanaik, Basanta Kumar Nanda and Probir Kumar Bose 2012, performance & emission studies on a single cylinder di diesel engine fueled with diesel and rice bran oil methyl ester blends, International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, ISSN: 2231-1963

[10] E. M. Shahid 1 and Y. Jamal 2011, Performance Evaluation of a Diesel Engine Using Biodiesel, Pak. J. Engg. & Appl. Sci. Vol. 9, Jul., 2011 (p. 68-75)

[11] M.Prabhahar, R.Murali Manohar, S.Sendilvelan 2012, performance and emission studies of a diesel engine with Pongamia methyl ester at different load conditions, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 3, May-Jun 2012, pp.2707-2713.

[12] K. Harshavardhan Reddy, N.Balajiganesh 2012, Experimental Investigation on Four Stroke Diesel Engine using Diesel –Orange oil Blends, Undergraduate Academic Research Journal (UARJ), ISSN: 2278 – 1129, Volume-1, Issue-2, 2012.

[13] B.Dinesh Babu, R.Vidya Sagar Raju, K. Thirupathi Reddy 2014, Experimental Investigation of Rubber Seed Oil as Biodiesel on C.I. Engine, International Journal of Engineering Research ISSN:2319- 6890.


An Exploratory Survey of Energy Efficient Protocols and Techniques in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Yogesh Mishra, Rashmi Pandey, Ashish Singhadia

Abstract— In wireless sensor networks, lifetime enhancement is a huge challenging task because the sensor nodes are equipped with limited low power battery. The battery replacement or recharge is not possible as nodes are deployed in inaccessible polluted environment. When the battery power of a sensor node is exhausted, then the sensor node dies. When sufficient number of sensor nodes die, the whole network does not perform its desired task. Thus the network lifetime enhancement is most important task of a wireless sensor network.Various energy efficient protocolswas applied to enhance network lifetime. This paper surveys the recent energy efficient protocols and their performance. Our survey concludes with problem formulation, its solution and the recommendations to the future direction in the energy efficient model for wireless sensor networks.

Keywords-Wireless Sensor Network, Clustering, Cluster Head, Base Station, Low Energy, Energy Efficient Protocol.


[1] I.F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, "A Survey on Sensor Network", IEEE Communication Magazine 40, (August 2004), pp.102-114.

[2] Suster, M. ; Young, D.J. ; Ko, W.H., “Micro-power wire

[3] XuhuiChen ;Peiqiang Yu, “Research on hierarchical mobile wireless sensor network architecture with mobile sensor nodes”, IEEE conference on Biomedical Engineering and Informatics (BMEI), 2010, pp.2863 - 2867.

[4] Young, D.J., “Interface electronics for MEMS-based wireless sensing applications”, IEEE Symposium on VLSI Design Automation and Test, 2010, pp.130 - 133

[5] Wei Yen ;Ching-Wei Chen ; Cheng-hsiang Yang, “Single gossiping with directional flooding routing protocol in wireless sensor networks”, 3rd IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications, ICIEA 2008, pp.1604-1609.

[6] Doohan, N.V. ; Mishra, D.K. ; SanjivTokekar, “Shortest Path Routing Protocol (SPRP) for Highly Data Centric Wireless Sensor Networks”, IEEE conference on Internet (AH-ICI), 2011, Second Asian Himalayas, pp.1-4.

[7] Intanagonwiwat, C. ;Govindan, R. ; Estrin, D. ; Heidemann, J. ; Silva, F., “Directed diffusion for wireless sensor networking”, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 2003, pp.2-16.

[8] DebaoXiao ;Meijuan Wei ; Ying Zhou, “Secure-SPIN: Secure Sensor Protocol for Information via Negotiation for Wireless Sensor Networks”, 1st IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications 2006, pp.1-4.

[9] Kanai, H. ; Koizumi, Y. ; Ohsaki, H. ; Imase, M., “IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference (CCNC), 2012, pp.235-239.

[10] Ito, S. ;Yoshigoe, K., “Consumed-energy-type-aware routing for wireless sensor networks”, Wireless Telecommunications Symposium, WTS 2007, pp. 1-6.

[11] Qin, Y., “Analysis of cluster-based hierarchical routing in ad hoc wireless networks”, Electronics Letters, Volume:42, Issue: 8, 2006, pp.474- 476.

[12] Young-Long Chen ; Yu-Cheng Lin ; Neng-Chung Wang, “An intersection-based coverage algorithm for PEGASIS architecture in Wireless sensor networks”, IEEE Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics (ICMLC), 2012, pp.1727- 1731.

[13] Li-Qing Guo ; Yi Xie ; Chen-Hui Yang ; Zheng-Wei Jing, “Improvement on LEACH by combining Adaptive Cluster Head Election and Two-hop transmission”, International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics (ICMLC), 2010, pp.1678- 1683.

[14] AratiManjeshwar ; Agrawal, D.P., “TEEN: a routing protocol for enhanced efficiency in wireless sensor networks”, Proceedings 15th International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, 2001, pp.2009-2015.

[15] Jin-Zhao Lin, Xian Zhou, Yun Li, “A minimum-energy pathpreserving topology control algorithm for wireless sensor networks”, International Journal of Automation and Computing, August 2009, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp.295-300.

[16] Gandham, S. ;Dawande, M. ; Prakash, R., “An integral flow-based energy-efficient routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks”, IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC. 2004, Vol.4, pp.2341- 2346.

[17] Sheltami, T.R. ;Shakshuki, E.M. ; Maarouf, I.K., “Performance evaluation for Geographical and Energy Aware Routing protocol”, GCC Conference & Exhibition, 2009 5th IEEE, pp.1-5.

[18] Inagaki, T. ; Ishihara, S., “A Scheme for Expanding Grid Size of Geographical Adaptive Fidelity”, Fourth International Conference on Networked Sensing Systems, 2007. INSS '07. pp.291.

[19] Osawa, T. ; Inagaki, T. ; Ishihara, S., “Implementation of Hierarchical GAF”, 5th International Conference on Networked Sensing S.


A Design of Information Management System for Veterinary Epidemiological Research based on ICT

Authors: Teppei Hirata, Yayumi Nishihira, Takeshi Miyagi, Yoshihiro Yonahara, Yoshiki Kinjou, Yasunori Nagata, Shiro Tamaki

Abstract— In these years, from the threat of livestock infectious diseases, such as represented by the BSE, to protect the livestock industry is getting more important. So in this study, we design the system that to support the epidemiological survey. The System is used the mobile phone and high portability. And also Smartphone has GPS and camera function that can be used for getting a variety of information. In this system, the information such as the owner of animal, animal, the clinical laboratory samples, such as manure or blood obtained from animal can collected. And the collected data are sort to database. And it can get variety of analysis through WEB system.

Keywords— Goat, Android, Mobile Phone Terminal, Veterinary Epidemiology


[1] Norihiko MUROGA, Yoko HAYAMA, Takehisa YAMAMOTO, Akihiro KUROGI, Tomoyuki TSUDA, Toshiyuki TSUTSUI:” The 2010 Foot-and-Mouth Disease Epidemic in Japan”, Journal of Veterinary Medical Science Vol. 74, No. 4, pp. 399-404(2012)

[2] Fu ZF,” The rabies situation in Far East Asia.” Dev Biol (Basel). 131:55-61, 2008

[3] Guoyu NIU ,Jiandong LI, Mifang LIANG , Xiaolin JIANG, Mei JIANG, Haiying YIN, Zhidian WANG, Chuan LI, Quanfu ZHANG, Cong JIU, Xianjun WANG, Shujun DING, Zheng XING, Shiwen WANG, Zhenqiang BI, Dexin LI:“Severe Fever with ThrombocytopeniaSyndrome Virus among Domesticated Animals, China”, Emerging Infectious Diseases Vol. 19, No. 5, (2013)

[4] Teppei HIRATA, Ai IJICHI, Miwako OSHIRO, Chiaki GAKIYA, Ken KUWAE, Akimichi SHIMABUKURO, Shiro TAMAKI: ”Development of Quality Control and Breeding Management System of Goats Based on Information and Communication Technology ”, Studies in Informatics and Control , Vol. 22, No. 1, (2013)

[5] Yoshiki KINJO, : “Estimation of the basic reproduction number on severe fever thrombocytopenia syndrome virus transmission in sheep cohort population in Shandong, China ”, Personal Letter (2013)


Implementation and Comparative analysis of 32-bit Low Power Adiabatic & Hybrid Adders

Authors: Muppavarapu Sai Sumanth, Tulasi Sanath Kumar

Abstract— This paper proposes different types of adder cells. Adder plays an important role in arithmetic operation in addition, subtraction, multiplication, division etc., so it is called as basic functional block. In this paper we performed a comparative analysis of various Low power Adiabatic & Hybrid adders. These adder cells are designed by using cadence 45nm tool and compared in prospects of power, delay and PDP.

Keywords— PDP-Power-delay product, Adiabatic, Hybrid Adders, Sparse tree Adder, SERF Adder


[1] “Power and delay comparison between different types of circuits”. ISSN 2278-8875, Volume 1, Issue 3, September 2012.

[2] “Performance analysis of Low power full adder cells using 45nm CMOS technology”. ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 4, Issue 1, January 2014.

[3] “Comparative analysis of conventional CMOS and energy efficient adiabatic logic circuits”. ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 3, Issue 9, September 2013.

[4] “Design of energy efficient full adder using hybrid CMOS logic style”. ISSN 2231-1963, Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2012.

[5] “An efficient adiabatic circuit design approach for low power applications”. Volume 2, No.1, November 2009.

[6] “Power efficient VLSI inverter design using adiabatic logic and estimation of power dissipation using VLSI-EDA tool”. IJCCT. Volume 2, Issue 2,3,4; December 2010.

[7] “A new full adder cell for low power applications”. A.M. shams, M.A. Bayougi. [8] “CMOS/BiCMOS ULSi Low Voltage, Low Power”. Kiat-seng Yeo, Samir s. Rofail, Wang-Ling Goh.

[9] “8-bit kogge stone Adder report”. Anurag Sindhu, Ashish Bhatia.


A Survey of Homomorphic Encryption Schemes in Cloud Data Storage

Authors: R. Kanagavalli, Dr. Vagdevi S

Abstract— Cloud Computing technology is enabling IT managers to treat infrastructure as a common substrate on which they can provide services to users in a faster, more flexible and cost effective way. Despite the trumpeted business and technical advantages of cloud computing, many potential users are yet to join the cloud and those who are cloud users put only their less sensitive data in the cloud. Lack of security in the cloud is a major worry. Data can be encrypted and stored in the cloud but the problem is that while data can be sent to and from a cloud provider’s data center in an encrypted form, the servers that power a cloud can’t do any work on it that way. With homomorphic encryption, a company could encrypt its entire database and upload it to a cloud and it is possible to analyze data without decrypting it. In this paper, we surveyed homomorphic cryptosystems, how they differ, how to use them to secure our data in cloud and perform operations on the data with the help of cipher texts.

Keywords— Cloud Security, Cloud Data Storage, Homomorphic key, Erasure coding, RNS.


[1] Ronald L. Rivest, Leonard Adleman, and Michael L. Dertouzos. On Data Banks and Privacy Homomorphisms, chapter On Data Banks and Privacy Homomorphisms, pages 169-180. Academic Press, 1978.

[2] Pascal Paillier. Public-key cryptosystems based on composite degree residuosity classes. In 18th Annual Eurocrypt Conference (EUROCRYPT'99), Prague, Czech Republic, volume 1592, 1999.

[3] Julien Bringe and al. An Application of the Goldwasser-Micali Cryptosystem to Biometric Authentication, Springer-Verlag, 2007.

[4] A.G. Dimakis, V. Prabhakaran, and K. Ramchandran, “Decentralized Erasure Codes for Distributed Networked Storage,” IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 52, no. 6 pp. 2809-2816, June 2006.

[5] H.-Y. Lin and W.-G. Tzeng, “A Secure Decentralized Erasure Code for Distributed Network Storage , ,” IEEE Trans.Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 1586-1594, Nov. 2010.

[6] H.-Y. Lin and W.-G. Tzeng, “A Secure Erasure Code based cloud storage system with secure data forwarding,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 995-1003, June. 2012.

[7] M. Mambo and E. Okamoto, “Proxy Cryptosystems: Delegation of the Power to Decrypt Ciphertexts,” IEICE Trans. Fundamentals of Electronics, Comm. and Computer Sciences, vol. E80-A, no. 1, pp. 54- 63, 1997.

[8] M. Blaze, G. Bleumer, and M. Strauss, “Divertible Protocols and Atomic Proxy Cryptography,” Proc. Int’l Conf. Theory and Application of Cryptographic Techniques (EUROCRYPT), pp. 127- 144, 1998.

[9] G. Ateniese, K. Fu, M. Green, and S. Hohenberger, “Improved Proxy Re-Encryption Schemes with Applications to Secure Distributed Storage,” ACM Trans. Information and System Security, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1-30, 2006.

[10] Mahadevan Gomathikrishnan,Akilesh Tyagi,” HORNS-A Homomorphic encryption scheme for cloud computing using Residue Number System”, IEEE transactions on parallel and distributed systems, vol. 23, no. 6, June 2011,pp 995-1003

[11] Emalda Roslin, Abhirami, Nandita,”SSS-ECSecure storage services and erasure code implementation in cloud computing ”, IJETT, vol.4, no.3, June 2013,pp 275-283.

[12] O. Khan, R. Burns, J. Plank, W. Pierce, and C. Huang, “Rethinking erasure codes for cloud file systems: Minimizing i/o for recovery and degraded reads, FAST 2012.

[13] Aderemi A Atayeo,Oluwaseyi Feyistan,”Security Issues in Cloud Computing-The potentials of Homomorphic Encryption”,JETCI,Vol 2,no 10,October 2011,pp546-552.

[14] C. Wang, Q. Wang, K. Ren, and W. Lou, “Ensuring Data Storage Security in Cloud Computing,” Proc. 17th Int’l Workshop Quality of Service (IWQoS ’09), pp. 1-9, July 2009

[15] M. Creeger, “Cloud Computing: An Overview,” Queue, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 2:3-2:4, June 2009.


Review of Visualization Techniques in Computer Graphics

Authors: Jayasudha K, Dr. K. G. Mohan, Harshal Sawant

Abstract— Surgical simulation has many applications in medical education, surgical training, surgical planning, and intra-operative assistance. However, extending current surface-based computer graphics methods to model phenomena such as the deformation, cutting, tearing, or repairing of soft tissues poses significant challenges for realtime interactions. This paper elaborates various methods currently used for surgical simulations. Reading a large quantity of research papers and capturing the essential information from them is a very challenging task. This paper aims to categorize the concept of various approaches related to area of interest. Also analyzes the current situation of model modification in development of visual technology. The relevant components are depicted in detail. This paper presents a survey of work done in eight different visualization categories within computer graphics research community. The research has a long history and wide range of approaches. This paper organizes the diversity of research by using various algorithms and methods. This paper also suggests important areas for future research.

Keywords—Two Dimension(2D), Three Dimension(3D), Artificial Intelligence(AI), Binary Space Partitioning (BSP), Carnio Maxillo Facial(CMF), Compute Unified Device Architecture(CUDA), Digital Image Correlation(DIC), Finite Element Method (FEM), Graphics Processing Unit(GPU), Light detection and Ranging (LIDAR), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Mass Spring Method(MSS), Scale Invariant Feature Transfer(SIFT), Virtual Reality(VR).


[1] Xiufen Ye, Xi Ji'er, Ling Zhu and Rui Van, Research on Soft Tissue Deformation and Cutting in the Virtual Surgery. In Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE/ICME International Conference on Complex Medical Engineering May 22 - 25, Harbin, China.

[2] Lenka Jeˇr´abkov´aa, Guillaume Bousqueta, b, S´ebastien Barbiera, Franc¸ois Faurea, b, J´er´emie Allardc, ―Volumetric Modeling and Interactive Cutting of Deformable Bodies‖, Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 103, 2-3 (2010) 217-224.

[3] E.A.Audenaert, P.Mahieu, T.van Hoof and pattyn, ―Soft Tissue Structure Modeling for Use in Orthopedic Applications and musculoskeletal Biomechanics‖, Journal on Advances in signal processing, volume 2010, Article ID 389356, 9 pages.

[4] Dong Ni, Wing yin chan, Jing Qin, Yim pan chui and yingge Qu, ―A Virtual Reality Simulator for Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy Training‖, IEEE Computer Society, April 2011 0272-1716.

[5] Mike Bailey, ―Visualization viewpoints using GPU shaders for Visualization, part 2‖, IEEE computer graphics and applications,2011,0272-1716.

[6] Yanxiang Zhou, Juliane Liepe, Xia Sheng, Michael P.H.Stumpf and Chris Barnes, ―GPU accelerated biochemical network simulation‖, Advance Access publication January 11, 2011, vol.27 no, pages 874- 876.

[7] Bo Zhu, Lixu Gu, and Zhe Zhou, ―Particle-Based Deformable Modeling with Pre-computed Surface Data in Real-Time Surgical Simulation‖, H. Liao et al. (Eds.): MIAR 2010, LNCS 6326, pp. 503–512

[8] Martin seiler,Denis steinemann,Jonas spillmann, Matthias Harders, ―Robust interactive cutting based on an adaptive octree simulation mesh‖, Vis Comput(2011) 27: 519-529.

[9] Martin seiler, Jonas spillmann, Matthias Harders, ―A Threefold representation for the adaptive simulation of Embedded Deformable objects in contact‖, 2010.

[10] Marc Gissler, Markus Ihmsen, Matthias Teschner, ―Efficient uniform grids for collision handling in Medical simulators‖, German research foundation, 2011.

[11] Benjamin Gilles,Guillaume Bousquet,Francois Faure,Dinesh K.Pai, ―Frame-based Elastic Models‖, ACM Transactions on Graphics, 2010.

[12] yun Jang,David S.Ebret and Kelly Gaither, ―Time-varying data Visualization using Functional Representations‖, IEEE transactions on Visualization and computer graphics,2010.

[13] Ibraheem Alhasim, Hao zhang, Ligang Liu, ―Detail-Replicating Shape Stretching‖, the visual computer manuscript, 2010.

[14] Christian Dick,Joachim Georgii and Rudiger westermann, ―A Hexahedral Multigrid Approach for Simulating cuts in Deformable Objects‖, IEEE transactions on Visualization and computer graphics, vol 17,no 11, November 2011.

[15] Z WANG, X WANG, X YANG, ―Surface Rendering Technology Based on GPU Projected Grid‖, Computer, 2010.

[16] X HAN, J LI, ―Study on Contour Force Rendering Technology Oriented to Image Perception‖, Journal of System Simulation, 2011.

[17] M Okada, N Iwanaga, T Matsumura, ―3D Sound Rendering for Multiple Sound Sources Based on Fuzzy Clustering‖, 2010.

[18] Y GAO, H WEI, W CAO, ―Research and Implementation of Tree Leaves Realistic Real-time Rendering Method‖, Journal of System Simulation, 2010.

[19] L YU, J ZHAO, L ZHANG, D WANG, ―Design and research on multi DOF fingered mechanism of minimally invasive surgical robot‖, Journal of Machine, 2010.

[20] C ZHANG, B WANG, ―A Study on Classification of Camera Calibration Methods‖, Computer, 2010.

[21] X Yin, ―The Research and Application of the collision detection Walkthrough in 3D scene‖, Computer knowledge and Technology, 2010.

[22] George M.Turkiyyah, Wajih Bou Karam, Zeina Ajami, Ahmad Nasri, ―Mesh cutting during real-time physical simulation‖, Computer-Aided Design, Volume 43, Issue 7, July 2011,Pages 809- 819

[23] Ingela Nystrom, George J.Grevera, Bruce E.Hirsch, Jayaram K.Udupa, ―Efficient Computation of Enclosed Volume & Surface area from the same Triangulated surface representation‖, computerized medical imaging and graphics, volume 35,issue 6,September 2011,pages 460-471.

[24] Su-Lin Lee, Mirna Lerotic, Valentina Vitiello, Stamatia Giannarou, Ka-Wai Kwok, Marco Visentini-Scarzanella, Guang-Zhong Yang, ―From medical images to minimally invasive intervention: Computer assistance for robotic surgery‖, Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics, Volume 34, Issue 1, January 2010, Pages 33-45.

[25] Yo Kobayashi, Akinori Onishi, Hiroki Watanabe, Takeharu Hoshi, Kazuya Kawamura, Makoto Hashizume, Masakatsu G. Fujie, ―Development of an integrated needle insertion system with image guidance and deformation simulation‖, Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics, Volume 34, Issue 1, January 2010, Pages 9- 18.

[26] J. Jiang, P. Trundle, J. Ren, ―Medical image analysis with artificial neural networks‖, Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics, Volume 34, Issue 8, December 2010, Pages 617-631.

[27] Lin yanping, Chen Xiaojun, Xhang Shilei, Wang Chengtao frof, Shen Guofang Frof, ―Computer-Aided Surgical Simulation and Navigation in Reconstruction of Old Complicated Craniomaxillofacial Fractures‖, procedia Environmental Sciences 8(2011) 536-542.

[28] Chuhua Xian, Shuming Gao, Tianming Zhang, ―An approach to automated decomposition of volumetric mesh‖, computers & graphics 35(2011) 461-470.

[29] Wei Zeng, Joseph Marino, Arie Kaufman, Xianfeng David Gu, ―Volumetric colon wall unfolding using harmonic differentials‖, computers & graphics 35(2011) 726-732.

[30] Jun Zhou, Lei-Ting Chen,Qi-He Liu,Yan-Mei Li,Yun-Bo Rao, ―Sketch based simple 3d Tree Modelling‖, energy procedia 11(2011) 4838-4843.

[31] Mithra Vankipuram, Kanav Kahol, Alex McLaren, Sethuraman Panchanathan, ―A virtual reality simulator for orthopedic basic skills: A design and validation study‖, Journal of Biomedical Informatics 43 (2010) 661–668.

[32] Xiaoning Lia,Jie Shib,Yanjuan Caoa,Jiagang Lia,Anjin Chenb,Ge Chena, ―VRKidney for Serially Sectioned Image Processing and 3D Reconstruction by Using Visible Korean Human Data Set‖, ICESB 2011: 25-26 November 2011, Maldives.

[33] Hua Zhanga, Xianghong Caob, Guangzhao Cui b, Chunlin Zhangc, ―Virtual Reality System for Spine Surgery with Haptic Device‖, ICEES 2011: 14–16 October 2011, Singapore.


Investigation of Twin Cylinder Diesel Engine Fueled with Pongamia oil and Diesel oil.

Authors: Dr. Hiregoudar Yerrennagoudaru, Chandragowda M, Manjunatha K, Farhanaz

Abstract - All over the world the use of petroleum products has increased day by day. The vehicle population is also increasing day by day. The vehicle population has tremendous increased in the recent year with the explosion of vehicle population in the world wide. As the vehicle population increases the use of fossil fuel like petrol and diesel has increased tremendous. . Thus the implication of vegetable oil offers the advantage of being used readily in existing diesel engines. Hence to meet these requirements humans have to look towards alternatives to the petroleum based fuels like petrol and diesel. This paper focused only on non-edible oils like pongamia oil as fuel for C.I engine. The main objective of this paper is to study the performance and emission characteristics of a multi cylinder, constant speed diesel engine using pongamia oil & compared with the diesel fuel. Brief studies about the experimental setup and components have been done before the experiment started. Calculations have been done for the taken readings. A four stroke multi cylinder diesel engine was used to study the brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and emissions from zero loads to full load for both diesel and pongamia oil.

Keywords— Diesel, Pongamia oil, Performance, Exhaust emissions, Alternative fuels.


[1] S.D. Rahul Bharadwaj1and Shruthi H Heroor Production of Bio-fuel from Pongamia and its Performance on CI-Engine, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research (2013).

[2] Jagadeesh Alku, Prakash S Patil, Omprakash hebbal Experimental investigation of performance and combustion characteristics of pongamia biodiesel and its blends on diesel engine and LHR engine.

[3] Ganapathi. P, Vaisakh. K.V, Vivek Nair, Prasanth. K.K2, Ruthramurthi. M, Experimental Investigation on Diesel Engine Fuelled with Pongamia Pinnata Oil Blends. International Journal of Engineering & Technology Research Volume-2, Issue-2, MarchApril, 2014, pp. 01-06

[4] Gaurav Dwivedi and M.P. Sharma [2013] Performance Evaluation of Diesel Engine Using Biodiesel from Pongamia Oil, International journal of renewable energy research

[5] Vivek, Gupta, A.K., 2004, “Biodiesel production from Pongamia oil”. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 63, pp. 39-47.

[6] Ganapathi P and Robinson Y, “Testing of Performance, Emission and Combustion Characteristics of a Diesel Engine using Polymer Oil”, International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering, Vol.1, Issue 2, Oct-Dec.2013.

[7] Gaurav Dwivedi, M.P.Sharma, Siddarth Jain,” Impact Analysis of Biodiesel on Engine Performance- A Review”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review, Volume 15, Issue 9, December 2011, Pages 4633-4641

[8] A. Siva Kumar, D. Maheswar, K. Vijaya Kumar Reddy, ”Comparison of performance parameters by using Jatropha and fish oil as biodiesel”, Proc of the International Conf. & XX National Conf. on I.C. Engines and Combustion, pp. 235-239, (2007).

[9] T. Ratna Reddy1, M.V.S. Murali Krishna2, Ch. Kesava Reddy3 and P.V.K.Murthy4* Performance Evaluation of a Medium Grade Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engine with Mohr Oil Based Bio-Diesel International Journal of Recent advances in Mechanical Engineering (IJMECH) Vol.1, No.1, May 2012

[10] Ilker Turgut Yilmal, Metin Gumus, Mehmet Akcay, Thermal Barrier Coatings For diesel Engines. International scientific conference 19- 20 November 2010, Gabravo Turkey.

[11] Rajendra Prasath, B., P. Tamilporai ,P. and Mohd.Shabir, F., “ Analysis of combustion, performance and emission characteristics of low heat rejection engine using bio-diesel” International Journal of Thermal Sciences , Volume-49, pp: 2483-2490, 2010.

[12] Singaram Lakshamana., “Biodiesel: An Ecofriendly Alternate Fuel for the Future- a Review”, Thermal Science, 2009.Vol.13.No.3, pp185-199.

[13] A. Haiter Lenin, R. Ravi, K. Thyagarajan, “Performance Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Using Mahua Biodiesel as Alternate Fuel.” Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment. Vol. 4, Iss. 2,136-141, 2013.


Performance and Emission Characteristics of CI Engine using Hippie Oil and Cotton Seed Oil Blended with Methanol

Authors: Dr. Hiregoudar Yerrennagoudaru, Manjunatha K, Chandragowda, Praveen Kumar P H M

Abstract – Creating a suitable energy and environmental, alternative energy is needed to develop instead of using fossil fuels. The demand of resources and fuels for the technologies development is increasing day by day. In order to keep the development high we need to think about some alternative fuel with better efficiency which would help the demand keeping in mind the resources for the future generation An alternative fuel needs to be developed and researched upon which could help us get greener and better tomorrow. In this paper I would like to highlight upon the usage of Methanol (25%) blended with Hippie oil (75%), Methanol (25%) blended with Cotton Seed Oil for a compression ignition engine and the performance characteristics of this blended fuel.

Keywords- CI Twin Cylinder Engine, Cotton Seed Oil, Engine Performance, Emissions, Hippie oil, Methanol.


[1] Warring P., Fuel the Future, National Seminar on Hydrogen and Methanol: University Kebangsaan Selangor, Malaysia, 1993.

[2] Adelman H. G., Andrews D. G. and Devoto R. S., Exhaust Emission from a Methanol-Fuelled Automobile, SAE Transactions, 81 (1972) 720693, 1972.

[3] Havemann H. A., Rao M. R. K., Nataryan A., Narasimhan T. L. Alcohols in Diesel Engines, Automobile Engineer (1954) pp. 256- 262.

[4] Klaus B., Pederson P. S., Alternative Diesel Engine Fuels: An Experimental Investigation of Methanol, Ethanol, Methane and Ammonia in a D. I. Diesel 5

[5] Wang LJ, Song RZ, Zou HB, Liu SH, Zhou LB. Study on combustion characteristics of a methanol–diesel fuel compression ignition engine. Proc Inst Mech Eng D – J Auto 2008; 222:619– 27.

[6] Kulakoglu T. Effect of injection pressure on the performance and emissions of a diesel engine fueled with methanol–diesel blends. MSc Thesis. Turkey:Marmara University; 2009 [In Turkish].

[7] Sayin C, Uslu K, Canakci M. Influence of injection timing on the exhaust emissions of a dual-fuel CI engine. Renew Energy 2008; 33:1314–23.


A Secure Software Access Measure using Coupling, Complexity and Cohesion Metrics

Authors: K.Vaitheki, S. Urmela

Abstract— Security being an imperative feature and a crucial need of any software system the security issues have always been secondary for the developers in SDLC progression. The unavailability of the information about the proactive vulnerabilities and the security breaches makes the software much apprehensive. The vulnerability prone nature of the software that affects the secure access that is aimed is identified by adopting the CCC metrics. This paper elaborates Security patterns as reusable solutions and further it paves a way to develop patterns for secure access hence providing explicit solutions to the context of the problem related to secure access. The proposed work has refined the values for the quality attributes related to secure access through careful reviews and map them with necessary code level metrics that affects security at different abstraction levels. The modifications at the code levels based on the internal and external metrics aims to provide a step up in security correlated to secure access.

Keywords- Security, Patterns, Secure access, SDLC, CCC metrics


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[2 ] R. J. A. Buhr, R. S. Casselman,‖ Use case maps for object-oriented systems‖, ISBN: 9780134565422, Prentice Hall India

[3 ] M. Schumacher et al., Security Patterns: Integrating Security and Systems Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, 2005.

[4 ] Debra.S.Herrmann , ― Complete Guide to Security and privacy metrics‖ , Auerbach publications, taylor&francis group.

[5] Nabil Fakhfakh, Herv´eVerjus, Fr´ed´ericPourraz,,PatriceMoreaux ―Measuring The Satisfaction Degree Of Quality Attributes Requirements For Services Orchestrations‖,CTRQ 2011 : The Fourth International Conference on Communication Theory, Reliability, and Quality of Service, ISBN: 978-1-61208-126-7 pp - 89-94.

[6 ] Maxim Schnjakin, Michael Menzel, ChristophMeinel,‖ A Patterndriven Security Advisor for Service-oriented Architectures‖ , SWS’09, November 13, 2009, Chicago, Illinois, USA.pp: 13-20.

[7 ] S. S. Yau, N. Ye, H. Sarjoughian and D. Huang, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-8809, USA‖ Developing Service-based Software Systems with QoS Monitoring and Adaptation‖ .

[8 ] Heather Hinto, Maryann Hondo ,Dr.Beth Hutchinson ,‖ Security Patterns within a Service-Oriented Architecture‖, November 2005, http://www.ibm.com/websphere/developer/services/.

[9 ] Mark Endrei, Jenny Ang, Ali Arsanjani, Sook Chua ,Philippe Comte, PålKrogdahl, Min Luo Tony Newling,‖ Patterns: Service Oriented Architectureand Web Services‖, ibm.com/redbooks.

[10 ] Liam O’Brien , Len Bass Paulo Merson, ―Quality Attributes and Service-Oriented Architectures‖, Technical Note CMU/SEI-2005- TN-014.

[11] Darrell M. Kienzle, , Matthew C. Elder, . David Tyre, James Edwards-Hewitt, ―Security Patterns Repository Version 1.0‖.http://www.securitypatterns.com.

[12 ] Liam O’Brien, Len Bass, Paulo F. Merson, ―Quality Attributes and Service-Oriented Architectures‖, Carnegie Mellon University, Research Showcase ,Software Engineering Institute, 9-1-2005.

[13] Yanguo (Michael) Liu, IssaTraore,‖ Complexity Measures for Secure Service-Oriented Software Architectures‖, www.cs.unh.edu/~it666/reading.../complexity_leads_insecurity.pdf.

[14] Fernando Brito e Abreu ,RogérioCarapuça, ―Object-Oriented Software Engineering:Measuring and Controlling the Development Process‖, Revised version: Originally published in Proceedings o "4th Int. Conf. on Software Quality", October 1994.

[15 ] Hamid Mcheick, Yan Qi ,‖ Quality Attributes and Design Decisions in Service-Oriented Computing‖, 2012 International Conference on Innovations in Information Technology (IIT), pp 283-287.

[16 ] Kai Qian, Jigang Liu, Frank Tsui ,‖ Decoupling Metrics for Services Composition‖ 5th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Computer and Information Science, 2006 1st IEEE/ACIS International Workshop on Component-Based Software Engineering, Software Architecture and Reuse. Pp 44-47.

[17 ] Pham ThiQuynh, Huynh QuyetThang,‖ Dynamic Coupling Metrics for Service – Oriented Software‖, International Journal of Computer Science and Engineering 3:1 2009.

[18 ] Philip Bianco, Rick Kotermanski, Paulo F. Merson, ―Evaluating a Service-Oriented Architecture‖, Carnegie Mellon University, Research Showcase, 9-1-2007.

[19 ] MamounHirzalla, Jane Cleland-Huang, and Ali Arsanjani, ―A Metrics Suite for Evaluating Flexibility and Complexity in Service Oriented Architectures‖, ICSOC 2008, LNCS 5472, pp. 41–52, 2009. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009.

[20 ] Mikhail Perepletchikov*, Caspar Ryan, Keith Frampton, and Heinz Schmidt,‖ Formalising Service-Oriented Design‖, JOURNAL OF SOFTWARE, VOL. 3, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2008.

[21 ] Claudia Steghuis, ― Service granularity in SOA Projects : A Trde off Analysis‖, University of twente.

[22 ] Si Won Choi Soo Dong Kim ―A Quality model for evaluating reusability of services in SOA‖, IEEE,2008

[23 ] http://docs.oracle.com/

[24 ] http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Paper/5132835.aspx


Discrete Optimization of Truss Structure Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Mallika Alapati

Abstract-- During the last few years, several methods have been developed for the optimal design of structures. However, most of them, because of their calculus-based nature, treat the search space of the problem as continuous, when it is really discrete. Sometimes this leads to unrealistic solutions and therefore, they are not used in practice, which still prefers to rely on the more traditional iterative methods. This paper describes and uses genetic algorithm approach which explains that in a certain community, only the best organisms survive from all the adverse effects, i.e.,“ survival of the fittest ”. This paper describes the use of genetic algorithm (GA) in performing optimization of 2D truss structures to achieve minimum weight. The GA uses fixed length vector of the design variables which are the cross-sectional areas of the members. The objective considered here is minimizing the weight of the structure. The constraints in this problem are the stress and deflection in no member of the structure should exceed the allowable stress and deflection of the material. As a case study this method is applied to a bench mark example of 10 bar truss and the results provided show that the minimum weight obtained is further reduced by the methodology adopted.

Keywords- Optimal design, optimization, Genetic algorithm


[1 ] David.E.Goldberg, 1989,“Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and machine learning”,, Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.

[2 ] S.Rajeev and C.S.Krishnamoorthy, 1992, “Discrete optimization of Structures Using Genetic Algorithms”, ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol.118, No.5.pp.1233-1250

[3 ] Carlos Artemio Coello ,1991, “Discrete Optimization of Trusses using Genetic Algorithms”, Ph.D Thesis,Tulane University, New Orleans

[4 ] Noyan Turkkan, “Discrete optimization of Structures Using a Floating Point Genetic Algorithms, Moncton, N.B., Canada

[5 ] C.A. Coello,A.D. Christiansen, 2000, “Multi Objective Optimization of Truss Using Genetic Algorithms”, Volume 75, Issue 6, 647–660

[6 ] Deb .K and Gulati .S, 2001, “Design of Truss Structure for Minimum Weight Using Genetic Algorithms”, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, Vol.37, 447- 465.

[7 ] Rajah.S, 1995, “Sizing Shape and Topological Optimization of Trusses Using Genetic Algorithms”, Journal of Structural Engineering, 1480-1487


Heterogeneous Network Routing Analysis

Authors: Sadiqa nishat Bawoor, Shrikant Nandan, Dr Jayashree D. Mallapur

Abstract— The two main driving technologies in the mobile telecommunication market of third generation mobile systems were identified as UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems) and Internet on mobile systems. The UMTS evolved the mobile systems with the concept of portability. The portability rendered the service of a personalized service set across the network/terminal boundaries. The other services like Voice Over IP (VOIP) is another important evolution of the third generation which helps to acquire data communication on mobile systems. In this paper we have simulated UMTS application using a network simulator called Qualnet. The simulation results are taken for different applications and routing protocol.

Keywords- UMTS, IERP and Fisheye.


[1] M. Ricardo, J. Dia G,. Carneiro‟, J. Ruela‟support of 1p qos over umts networks, personal indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 2002. The 13th IEEE International Symposium on (Volume 4). Date of Conference: 15-18 Sept 2002.

[2] Lieve Bos and Suresh Leroy, „‟Toward an All-IP Based UMTS system architecture 0890-8044/01 2001 IEEE, IEEE Network.January/February 2001.

[3] Shiao-Li-Tsao and Chia-Ching Lin, „‟ Design and Evolution of UMTS-WLAN Interworking Strategies Vehicular Technology Conference, 1988 IEEE 38th 02/2002.

[4] Y. Yorozu, M. Hirano, K. Oka, and Y. Tagawa, “Electron spectroscopy studies on magneto-optical media and plastic substrate interface,” IEEE Transl. J. Magn. Japan, vol. 2, pp. 740–741, August 1987 [Digests 9th Annual Conf. Magnetics Japan, p. 301, 1982].

[5] M. Young, The Technical Writer's Handbook. Mill Valley, CA: University Science, 1989. „‟Shiao-Li Tsao and Chia-Ching Lin‟‟ Design and Evaluation of UMTS-WLAN Interworking Strategies Vehicular Technology Conference, 1988, IEEE 38th 02/2002.

[6] Qualnet 6.1 user‟s guide http://www.scalable-networks.com.


Clearing The Clouds On Cloud Computing: Survey Paper

Authors: PS Yoganandani, Rahul Johari, Kunal Krishna, Rahul Kumar, Sumit Maurya

Abstract— The advent of Cloud Computing in 2006, has led to significant changes in computing in general and working pattern of users in particular. Starting from the definition of cloud computing, elements of cloud computing, cloud services, cloud deployment, cloud computing platforms & technologies and issues & challenges of cloud computing are described in this paper.

Keywords— Cloud Computing, Cloud Deployment Models, Security and Challenges in Cloud Computing, Cloud Computing Platforms and Technologies, Cloud Database Cloud Services, Evolution of cloud, QoS


[1 ] Mastering cloud computing by Rajkumar Buyya, ‗Christian Vecchiola & S Tamarai Selvi

[2 ] ―Cloud Computing ― Principles and Paradigms by Rajkumar Buyya [3 ] A view of cloud computing: M Armbrust, A Fox, R Griffith, AD Joseph 2010

[4 ] The NIST definition of cloud computing: P Mell, T Grance - NIST special publication, 2011

[5 ] Introduction to cloud computing: W Voorsluys, J Broberg, R Buyya - Cloud Computing, 2011

[6 ] High Performance Parallel computing with clouds and cloud technologies: J Ekanayake, G Fox -Cloud Computing, 2010

[7 ] Cloud computing privacy concerns on our doorstep: C Computing - Communications of the ACM, 2011

[8 ] Cloud Computing – Issues & Challenges: Tharam Dillon, Chen Wu & Elizabeth Chang – 2010 IEEE

[9 ] On technical security issues in cloud computing: Meiko Jensen, Jorg S & Nils G – 2009 IEEE

[10 ] Security and Privacy Challenges in Cloud computing Environments: Hassan Takabi, James BD Joshi, Gail – Joon Ahn, 2010 IEEE

[11 ] Cloud computing—The business perspective

[12 ] S Marston, Z Li, S Bandyopadhyay, J Zhang - Decision Support, 2011All authors should include biographies with photo at the end of regular papers.

[13 ] Cloud Computing and Databases-How Databases can meet the demands of cloud computing : www.scaled.com/pdfs/cloudcomputingdaas.pdf


Upconversion Luminescence in Er3+/ Yb3+Codoped Lead Bismuth Indium Borate Glasses

Authors: Y Raja Rao, K Krishnamurthy Goud, E Ramesh Kumar, M Chandra Shekhar Reddy, B Appa Rao

Abstract— The effect of Er3+ concentration on red emission in Er3+/Yb3+co-doped PbO-B2O3 -Bi2O3 -In2O3 glasses is reported. Optical absorption, FTIR and luminescence spectra of all the glasses were recorded at room temperature. The optical absorption spectra exhibited a band at 990nm due to transitions from the ground state 4 I15/2 and 2F7/2 to excited states of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions, respectively. The other absorption bands at 491 nm (4F7/2), 523 nm (2H11/2), 565 nm ( 4 S3/2), 660 nm (4F9/2), 812 nm (4 I9/2) and 1525 nm (4 I13/2) are attributed to transitions from the ground state 4 I15/2 to excited state of Er3+ . From the optical absorption spectra, optical band gap Eopt, Urbach energy values were calculated and it was observed that the Eopt decreases with increasing the concentration of Er3+ ions upto 0.6 mol% and increases with further increase in the concentration of Er3+ ions. The FT-IR data revealed the presence of BiO3 , PbO4 , BO4 and BO3 functional groups in all the investigated glasses. Green and red up-conversion emissions centered at 529, 542 and 656 nm corresponding to 2H11/2 4 I15/2, 4 S3/2 4 I15/2 and 4F9/2 4 I15/2 transitions, respectively, of Er3+ ions have been obtained under 980 nm laser excitation at room temperature. The results obtained are discussed quantitatively based on the energy transfer between Yb3+ and Er3+ ions.

Keywords—Glasses, FTIR, Optical absorption, Photo luminescence, Rare earths.


[1] Minghui Zhang, YanLiu, Jianding Yu, Xiuhong Pan, Shinchi Yoda. A novel upconversion TiO2-La2O3-Ta2O5 bulk glass co-doped with Er3+/Yb3+ fabricated by containerless processing. Materials letters, 2012, 66, 367-369.

[2] Yang Kuisheng, Xue Huili, Wu Rinang, Kan Jiaqiang, Wang Weizhong, Zeng Bin, Zhang Xiyan. Research on Up-conversion Mechanism in Er3+/Yb3+ -codoped Oxyfluoride Glass J. of Rare Earths, 2006, 24, 175.

[3] Sudhakar K S V, Satyanarayana T, Srinivasa RaoL, Srinivasa Reddy N and Veeraiah N. Optical absorption and self activated pconversion fluorescence spectra of Tm3+ ions in antimony borate glass system. Solid State Communications, 2008,146, 441-445.

[4] Shiv Prakash Singh, Chakradhar R P S, Rao J L and Basudeb Karmakar. EPR, FTIR, Optical absorption and photoluminescence studies of Fe2O3 and CeO2 doped ZnO-Bi2O3-B2O3 glasses. J. of Alloys and Compounds, 2010, 493, 256-262.

[5] Srinivasa Reddy M, Naga Raju G, Nagarjuna G, Veeraiah N. Structural influence of aluminium, gallium and indium metal oxides by means of dielectric and spectroscopic properties of CaO–Sb2O3 – B2O3 glass system. J. of Alloys and Compounds, 2007, 438, 41-51.

[6] Sahaya Baskaran G, Little Flower G, Krishna Rao D and Veeraiah N.Structural role of In2O3 in PbO-P2O5-As2O3 glass system by means of spectroscopic and dielectric studies. J. of Alloys and Compounds, 2007, 431, 303-312.

[7] Bomfim F A, Martinelli J R, Kassab L R P, Wetter N U, Neto J J. Effect of the ytterbium concentration on the upconversion luminescence of Yb3+/Er3+ co-doped PbO-GeO2-Ga2O3 glasses. J. of Non-Crystalline Solids, 2008, 354, 4755-4759.

[8] Raghava Rao P, Venkatramaiah N, Gandhi Y, Ravi Kumar V, Kityk I V and Veeraiah N. Role of modifier oxide in emission spectra and kinetics of Er-Ho codoped Na2SO4-MO-P2O5 glasses. Spectrochimica Acta Part A, 2012, 86, 472-480.

[9] Purnachand N, Satyanarayana T, Kityk I V, Veeraiah N. Fluorescence studies of Yb3+ ions in lead antimony borate glassInfluence of crystallization. J. Alloys and Compounds, 2010, 492, 706-711.

[10] Li Feng, Boyuan Lai, Jing Wang, Guogiang Du, Qiang Su. Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ in a oxyfluoride glass and upconversion and temperature sensor behaviour of Er3+ / Yb3+ codoped oxyfluoride glass. J. Luminescence, 2010, 130, 2418-2423.

[11] Raja Rao Y, Krishnamurthy Goud K, Srinivas M and Appa Rao B. Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and upconversion luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped lead bismuth alumina borate glasses. Int. J. of Luminescence and its Applications, 2013, 32(Special issue), 170- 173.

[12] Raja Rao Y, Krishnamurthy Goud K and Appa Rao B. Luminescence studies of PbO-Bi2O3-Ga2O3-B2O3 glasses doped with Er3+ / Yb3+ . AIP Conf. Proc., 2013, 1536, 661- 662.

[13] Reddy M C S, Appa Rao B, Brik M G, Prabhakar Reddy A, RaghavaRao P, Jayasankar C K and Veeraiah N. Emission charactersitics of Dy3+ ions in lead antimony borate glasses. Applied Physics B, 2012, 108(2), 455-461.

[14] SUN Hong-Tao, DAI Shi-Xun, XU Shi-Qing, HU Li-LI and JIANG Zhong-Hong. Frequency Upconversion Emission of Er3+ -Doped Strontium-Lead-Bismuth Glasses. CHIN.PHYS.LETT., 2004, 21, 2292-2294.

[15] Salagram M, Krishna Prasad V and Subrahmanyam K. Optical band gap studies on xPb3O4-(1-x)P2O5 lead [(II, IV0] phosphate glasses, Optical Materials, 2002, 18, 367-372.

[16] Taisa B.Brito, Vermelho M V D, Gouveia E A, and de Araujo M T. Optical characterization of Nd3+ and Er3+ doped lead-indiumphosphate glasses. J. of Applied Physics, 2007, 102,043113.

[17] Subbalakshmi P and Veeraiah N. Optical absorption and fluorescence properties of Er3+ ion in MO-WO3-P2O5 glasses. J. of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, 2003, 64, 1027-1035.

[18] Pisarski W A, Goryczka T, Wodecka-Dus B, Plonska M and Pisarska J. Structure and properties of rare earth-doped lead borate glasses. Mat. Sci. and Engg. B, 2005, 122, 94-99.

[19] Karthikeyan B and Mohan S. Structural, optical and glass transition studies on Nd3+ doped lead bismuth borate glasses. Physica B, 2003, 334, 298-302.

[20] Saritha D, Markandeya Y, Salagram M, Vithal M, Singh A K and Bhikshamaiah G. Effect of Bi2O3 on physical, optical and structural studies of ZnO–Bi2O3–B2O3 glasses. J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 2008, 354, 5573-5579.

[21] Raluca Ciceo-Lucacel, Ioan Ardelean. FT-IR and Raman study of silver lead borate-based glasses. J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 2007, 353, 2020-2024.

[22] Rami Reddy M, Bangaru Raju S and Veeraiah N. Acoustic investigations on PbO-Al2O3-B2O3 glasses doped with certain rare earth ions. Bull. Mater. Sci., 2001, 24, 63-68.

[23] Venkateswara Rao P, Satyanarayana T, Srinivasa Reddy Y, Gandhi Y and Veeraiah N. Nickel as a structural probe in PbO-Bi2O3-B2O3 glass system by means of spectroscopic and dielectric studies. Physica B, 2008, 403, 3751-3759.

[24] Jakutis J, Gomes L, Amancio C T, Kassab L R P, Martinelli J R and Wetter N U. Increased Er3+ upconversion in tellurite fibers and glasses by co-doping with Yb3+ . Optical materials, 2010, 33, 107- 111.

[25] Yang G F, Shi D M, Zhang Q Y and Jiang Z H. Spectroscopic properties of Er3+/Yb3+ codoped PbO-Bi2O3-Ga2O3-Ge2O3 glasses. J. Fluoresc., 2008, 18, 131-137.


Five Decades of Innovations in MEMS Technology

Author: Reena Fernandes

Abstract- Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) encompass the process-based technologies used to fabricate tiny integrated devices and systems that integrate functionalities from different physical domains into one device. The products range in size from a few microns to millimeters and have the ability to sense, control and actuate on the micro scale and generate effects on the macro scale. MEMS have been found in systems ranging from consumer electronics, automotive, medical, communication to defense applications. Here, a brief review is presented on the established technologies in MEMS and the upcoming new innovations in the field. Also, the materials used in MEMS are getting more and more adventurous and an overview of the current research ongoing in this area is presented. Issues regarding commercialization and technology are minimally discussed. Concluding remarks are based on the future of the MEMS technology.

Keywords- MEMS.


[1] Hector J. De Los Santros. 1999. Introduction to micorelectromechanical (MEM) microwave systems, Norwood, MA: Artech House.

[2] R. J. Pryputniewicz, Current Trends and Future Directions in MEMS, 2012. Experimental Mechanics, 52(3):289-303.

[3] Marlene Bourne, A new take on MEMS innovation, Solid State Technology- Insights for electronic manufacturing. http://electroiq.com/blog/2008/09/a-new-take-on-mems-innovation/

[4] Henne van Heeren, Jeremie Bouchaud, Richard Dixon and Patric Salomon. 2007. Rewards and Risks of Moving into New Applications: Case Study Accelerometers.

[5] Ken Gilleo, 2003. MEMS in Medicine. SMTA Medical Electronics Conference, Minneapolis. www.et-trends.com

[6] Maximiliano Fischer, Yong Zhu, Pablo Zavattieri, Horacio Espinosa, MEMS Materials Testing. http://clifton.mech.nwu.edu/~espinosa/MEMS.html.

[7] Philip Ball, Smart Stuff, Department of Materials, University of Oxford.


Data Compression Schemes for WSN Nodes Used for Data Acquisition of Slowly Changing Digital Events

Authors: Dinesh K. Anvekar, Chaitra K.R, Chaitra H.V

Abstract— In this paper, minimization of energy required for transmission by nodes in a class of WSNs deployed to sense digital events is considered. Energy conservation directly leads to increased lifetime of a WSN. Considerable reduction of transmission energy can be achieved by reducing the number of bits transmitted to convey the same digital signal values. In an earlier paper, we considered some schemes for minimizing the number of transmitted bits. We have extended that work further as reported in this paper. The new scheme proposed in this paper involves grouping of 1 and 0 time periods in a matrix format and transmitting the matrix dimensions. We show that for digital signals with very long runs of 1s or 0s considerable reduction of transmitted energy can be achieved

Keywords—WSN, Energy Minimization, Sensor Node, Digital Signal


[1] M.S.Pawar, J.AA.Manore, and M.M.Kuber, ―Life Time Prediction of Battery Operated Node for Energy Efficient Applications,‖ IJCST, Vol. 2, Issue 4, Oct-Dec 2011, pp. 491-495.

[2] Jagdevi Kalshetty, Ramya S. and Dinesh K. Anvekar, ‖Minimization of Energy Consumption for Data Transmission by Wireless Sensor Nodes Used for Data Acquisition of Slowly Changing Signal‖, To be presented in NCTAC 2014 National Conference, Bangalore, 25&26th July 2014

[3] Chaitra K.R, Chaitra H.V, Dinesh K. Anvekar,‖ Data Compression in Wireless Sensor Nodes Used for Data Acquisition of Slowly Changing Digital Events,‖ To be presented in International Conference in Computer Science, Electronics and Communication Engineering - ICCECE, 2014, Bangalore, 27th July 2014

[4] G. Anastasi, M. Conti, M. Di Francesco, A. Passarella,‖Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks: A survey,‖ Ad Hoc Networks, 7 (3) (2009), pp. 537–568

[5] Campobello G., Leonardi A., Palazzo S.: Energy Saving and Reliability in Wireless Sensor Networks Using a CRT-based Packet Splitting Algorithm // University of Messina, Italy, 2010.

[6] C. Tang, C. S. Raghavendra, ―Compression techniques for wireless sensor networks‖, Chapter 10 in book Wireless Sensor Networks, Pp. 207 - 231, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004.

[7] Zahra Rezaei and Shima Mobininejad,‖ Energy Saving in Wireless Sensor Networks,‖ International Journal of Computer Science & Engineering Survey (IJCSES) Vol.3, No.1, February 2012


Earth’s Magnetic Field Fluctuations During CME Events at High Latitude in European Zone

Author: Babita Chandel

Abstract--The concerning results, are the variations of Geomagnetic Field Components in European Zone during coronal mass ejection (CME) events. The geomagnetic events selected for this study occurred during 2003-2006, a period of solar minimum at Tromso (TRO), Sodankyla (SOD) and Rorvik (ROR) with geomagnetic Latitude and Longitude (69.390 N 18.560 E), (67.3600 N . 26.3630 E) and (64.560 N 10.590 E). From the present study it is observed that the strength of a geomagnetic storm depends on the interplanetarymagnetospheric coupling parameter VBz. Higher the value of VBz, higher will be the strength of geomagnetic storm. Magnitude of variation at Rorvik is more as compared to Tromso and magnitude of variation is more at Tromso as compared to Sodankyla. Variation in vertical component is less as compared to the north-south and east-west component. Geomagnetic field components shows the variation when either interplanetary magnetic field orients southward or remains southward for few hours.

Keywords- CME, Coronal Holes, Kp and IMF


[1] H.V. Cane, I.G. Richardson, and O.C. St. Cyr, (2000), Coronal Mass Ejections, Interplanetary ejecta and geomagnetic storms.Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 3591,

[2] M. Dryer, (1994) Three-dimensional MHD simulation of the April 14, 1994, interplanetary coronal mass ejection and its propagation to earth and ulysses Space Sci. Rev., 67, 363,

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[6] S. Lepidi, P.Francia, U.Villante, A. Meloni, A. J Lazarus, and R. P.Lepping, (1999). The earth’s passage of the april 11, 1997 coronal ejecta: geomagnetic field fluctuations at high and low latitude Ann. Geophysicae, 17, 1245,

[7] J. A. Linker, (1999) modeling of solar corona, J. Geophys. Res., in press

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Dynamic Performance of DFIG using SMES For WECS

Authors: J Srinadh, S Sankara Prasad

Abstract— The integration of wind turbines into modern power grids has significantly increased during the last decade. Wind turbines equipped with doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs) have been dominating wind power installation worldwide since 2002. In this project work, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit is being used to improve the dynamic performance of a wind energy conversion system equipped with DFIG during voltage sag and voltage swell at the grid side.The converter and the chopper are controlled using a hysteresis current controller (HCC) and a fuzzy logic controller (FLC) respectively. The basic implementation of the HCC is based on deriving the switching signals from the comparison of the actual phase current with a fixed tolerance band around the reference current associated with that phase. To control power transfer between the SMES coil and the ac system, a dc–dc chopper is used, and fuzzy logic is selected to control its duty cycle (D) with input variables real power generated by the DFIG and the SMES coil current.The MATLAB/SIMULINK software is used to simulate the wind turbine, the SMES unit, and the model under study. Results are to be analyzed to highlight the improved dynamic performance of wind energy conversion systems in conjunction with the SMES unit. Detailed simulation is to be carried out using MATLAB/SIMULINK software to highlight the impact of the SMES unit in improving the overall system performance under voltage sag and voltage swell conditions.

Keywords—Doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), fuzzy logic, hysteresis current controller (HCC), superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), voltage sag, voltage swell and wind energy conversion system (WECS).


[1 ] A .M. Shiddiq Yunus, Mohammed A. S. Masoum, A. Abu-Siada, “Application of SMES to Enhance the Dynamic Performance of DFIG during Voltage Sag and Swell,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., Vol.22, no.4, August 2012.

[2 ] Y. Xiangwu, G. Venkataramanan, P. S. Flannery, W. Yang, D. Qing, and Z. Bo, “Voltage-sag tolerance of DFIG wind turbine with a series grid side passive-impedance network,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., Vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 1048-1056, Dec. 2010.

[3 ] M. Tsili and S. Papathanassiou, “A review of grid code technical requirements for wind farms,” IET Renew. Power Gener., Vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 308-332, Sept. 2009.

[4 ] M. Altin, O. Goksu, R. Teodorescu, P. Rodriguez, B. B. Jensen, and L. Helle, “Overview of recent grid codes for wind power integration,” in Proc. 12th Int. Conf. OPTIM, 2010, pp. 1152-1160.

[5 ] J. Lopez, E. Gubia, E. Olea, J. Ruiz and L. Marroyo, “Ride through of wind turbines with doubly fed induction generator under symmetrical voltage dips,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 4246-4254, Oct. 2009.

[6 ] M. Mohseni, S. M .Islam, and M. A. S. Masoum, “Impacts of symmetrical and asymmetrical voltage sags on DFIG based wind turbines considering phase-angle jump, voltage recovery, and sag parameters,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 1587- 1598, May 2011.

[7 ] S. Hu, X. Lin, Y.Kang, and X. Zou, “An improved low voltage ride through control strategy of doubly fed induction generator during grid faults,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 3653- 3665, Dec. 2011.

[8 ] S. S. Chen, L. Wang, W. J. Lee, and Z. Chen, “Power flow control and damping enhancement of a large wind farm using a superconducting magnetic energy storage unit,” IET Renew. Power Gener., Vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 23-38, Mar. 2009.

[9 ] M. H. Ali, W. Bin, and R. A. Dougal, “An overview of SMES applications in power and energy systems,” IEEE Trans. Sustainable Energy, Vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 38-47, Apr. 2010.

[10 ] A. R. Kim, S. Hyo-Ryong, K. Gyeong-Hun, P. Minwon, Y. In-Keun, Y. Otsuki, J. Tamura, K. Seok-Ho, S. Kideok, and S. Ki-Chul, “Operating characteristic analysis of HTS SMES for frequency stabilization of dispersed power generation system,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., Vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 1334-1338, Jun. 2010.

[11 ] Abu-Siada and S. Islam, “Application of SMES unit in improving the performance of an AC/DC power system,” IEEE Trans. Sustainable Energy, Vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 109-121, Apr. 2011.

[12 ] M. H. Ali, P. Minwon, Y. In-Keun, T. Murata, and J. Tamura, “Improvement of wind-generator stability by fuzzy-logic-controlled SMES,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 1045-1051, May/Jun. 2009.

[13 ] J. Hee-yeol, P. Dae-Jin, S. Hyo-Ryong, P. Minwon, and Y. In-Keun, “Power quality enhancement of grid-connected wind power generation system by SMES,” in Proc. IEEE/PES PSCE, 2009, pp. 1-6.

[14 ] S. Jing, T. Yuejin, X. Yajun, R. Li, and L. Jingdong, “SMES based excitation system for doubly fed induction generator in wind power ap-plication,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., Vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 1105-1108, Jun. 2011.

[15 ] M. G. Molina and P. E. Mercado, “Power flow stabilization and control of microgrid with wind generation by superconducting magnetic energy storage,”


Recent Trends in SCADA and Power Factor Compensation on low Voltage Power Systems for Advanced Smart Grid

Authors: Yahia Bahaa Hassan, Nabil Litayem, Mohyi el-din Azzam

Abstract— This paper presents an extending a smart grid to switched capacitor banks at the low-voltage three-phase four-wire distribution systems. New power factor regulators using MSP430 microcontrollers will be proposed instead of ordinary regulators to be suitable for connecting to the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system that actually has been implemented since 2005 in the Middle Egypt Electricity Distribution Company(MEEDCO). In MEEDCO, there are quite a lot of mounted power factor regulators in different locations, but most of these regulators are far from each other and also far from the control center of MEEDCO's SCADA system. This paper also discusses the suitable technology to communicate the suggested regulators with the control center efficiently and how this will be done in the framework of a secure smart grid.

Keywords— Data Transfer, MSP430, Smart Grid, SCADA, Security.


[1] Jianguo, Zhou, et al. "Load balancing and reactive power compensation based on capacitor banks shunt compensation in low voltage distribution networks."Control Conference (CCC), 2012 31st Chinese. IEEE, 2012.

[2] Mujawar, Irfan I., et al. "An Innovative TCR Compensator for Closed Loop Reactive Power Compensation of Dynamic Loads." changes 2.1 (2014).

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[4] Lippincott, Colin. "Secure wireless data communications for distribution automation in the Smart Grid." Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT), 2012 IEEE PES. IEEE, 2012.

[5] Endi, Mohamed, Y. Z. Elhalwagy, and Attalla Hashad. "Three-layer plc/scada system architecture in process automation and data monitoring." Computer and Automation Engineering (ICCAE), 2010 The 2nd International Conference on. Vol. 2. IEEE, 2010.

[6] Anjia Mao, ChaozhongXiong, ShashaLuo, Shanshan Zhao, and Dongxia Zhang, “An Approach of State Estimation Based on Process Measurement Data,” Power and Energy Engineering Conference. Asia-Pacific, pp. 1-6, March 2009.

[7] Trilliant company (2014, April). “Manage Your Distribution Grid Elements with SCADA ” [Online]. Available: http:// www.trilliantinc.com

[8] IEEE Std C37.ITM-2007, "IEEE Standard for SCADA and Automation Systems" IEEE Power and Energy Society, IEEE, USA, 2008, pp. 19-21.

[9] Dragicevic, Tomislav, et al. "Advanced LVDC Electrical Power Architectures and Microgrids: A Step towards a New Generation of Power Distribution Networks."IEEE Electrification Magazine (2014)

[10] NIST (2012), NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards, Release 2.0, NIST Special Publication 1108R2.

[11] Knapp, Eric, and Joel Langill. Industrial Network Security: Securing Critical Infrastructure Networks for Smart Grid, SCADA, and Other Industrial Control Systems. Elsevier, 2011.

[12] Fan, Yang, et al. "Design and Implementation of stand-alone smart grid employing renewable energy resources on PulauUbin Island of Singapore."Electromagnetic Compatibility (APEMC), 2012 AsiaPacific Symposium on. IEEE, 2012.

[13] Hledik, Ryan. "How green is the smart grid?." The Electricity Journal 22.3 (2009): 29-41.

[14] Lee, Keonkook, et al. "Cognitive beamforming based smart metering for coexistence with wireless local area networks." Journal of Communications and Networks 14.6 (2012): 619-628.

[15] Galli, Stefano, Anna Scaglione, and Zhifang Wang. "For the grid and through the grid: The role of power line communications in the smart grid." Proceedings of the IEEE 99.6 (2011): 998-1027.

[16] Y. Zhang and J.-L. Chen, “Wide-area SCADA system with distributed security framework,” J. Commun. Netw., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 597–605, Dec. 2012.

[17] Fan, C., S. Huang, and Y. Lai. "Privacy Enhanced Data Aggregation Scheme Against Internal Attackers in Smart Grid." (2014): 1-1.

[18] Aumasson, Jean-Philippe, et al. "Quark: A lightweight hash." Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, CHES 2010. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2010. 1-15.

[19] Anwar, Adnan, and AbdunNaserMahmood. "Cyber security of smart grid infrastructure." arXiv preprint arXiv:1401.3936 (2014).

[20] Vulnerability Assessment of Cybersecurity for SCADA Systems, Chee-Wooi Ten, Student Member, IEEE, Chen-Ching Liu, Fellow, IEEE, and GovindarasuManimaran, Member, IEEE, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 23, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2008

[21] Wang, Yongge. "sSCADA: Securing SCADA infrastructure communications."arXiv preprint arXiv:1207.5434 (2012).

[22] A Testbed for Secure and Robust SCADA Systems, AnnaritaGiani, Gabor Karsai, Tanya Roosta, Aakash Shah, Bruno Sinopoli, Jon Wiley

[23] Secure SCADA framework for the protection of energy control systems, Cristina Alcaraz1, Javier Lopez1, Jianying Zhou2 and Rodrigo Roman1, Concurrency Computat.: Pract. Exper. 2011; 23:1431–1442

[24] Yoo, Seong-eun. "A Wireless Sensor Network-Based Portable Vehicle Detector Evaluation System." Sensors 13, no. 1 (2013): 1160-1182.

[25] Chernbumroong, Saisakul, Anthony S. Atkins, and Hongnian Yu. "Activity classification using a single wrist-worn accelerometer." Software, Knowledge Information, Industrial Management and Applications (SKIMA), 2011 5th International Conference on. IEEE, 2011.

[26] Nikitin, Pavel V., Shashi Ramamurthy, and Rene Martinez. "Simple Low Cost UHF RFID Reader."

[27] Igure, V. M., Laughter, S. A., & Williams, R. D. (2006). Security issues in SCADA networks. Computers & Security, 25(7), 498-506.

[28] Bogdanov, A., Knežević, M., Leander, G., Toz, D., Varıcı, K., &Verbauwhede, I. (2011). SPONGENT: A lightweight hash function. In Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems– CHES 2011 (pp. 312-325). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.


Overview of Code Excited Linear Predictive Coder

Authors: Minal Mulye, Sonal Jagtap

Abstract— Advances in speech coding technologies have enabled speech coders to achieve bit-rate reductions at a great extent while maintaining roughly the same speech quality. One of the most important driving forces behind this feat is the analysis-by-synthesis paradigm. Code Excited Linear Predictive coder (CELP) is the quite efficient closed loop analysis-by-synthesis method for narrow and medium band speech coding systems. CELP algorithm can produce low- rate coded speech comparable to that of medium- rate waveform coders thereby bridging the gap between waveform coders and Vocoders. This paper gives the general overview and conceptual literature of this highly proficient speech coder.

Keywords— Analysis-by-synthesis, CELP, speech coder, Vocoders, waveform coders.


[1] Kamboh, A., Lawrence, K., Thomas, A., Tsai, P. 2005 Design of a CELP coder and analysis of various quantization techniques.

[2] Devalapalli, S., Rangarajan, R., Venkatramanan, R. Design of a CELP coder and study of complexity vs quality trade-offs for different codebooks.

[3] Saha, N. K., Sarkar, R. N., Rahman, M. 2011 Comparison of musical pitch analysis between LPC and CELP.

[4] Prokopov, V., Chyrkov, O. 2011 Eavesdropping on encrypted VoIP conversations: phrase spotting attack and defense approaches.

[5] Kabal, P. 2011 The equivalence of ADPCM and CELP coding.

[6] Kabal, P. 2009 ITU-T G.723.1 Speech coder- MATLAB Implementation.

[7] Dutoit, T., Moreau, N., Kroon, P. Speech processed in a cell phone conversation.


Analysis and Comparison of Evolutionary Algorithms applied to Adaptive Noise Cancellation for Speech Signal

Authors: Ritika Thakur, Papiya Dutta, Dr. G.C. Manna

Abstract— In this paper, an improved method based on evolutionary algorithm for speech signal denoising is proposed. In this approach, the stochastic global optimization techniques such as Artificial Bee Colony(ABC), Cuckoo Search (CS)algorithm, and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique are exploited for learning the parameters of adaptive filtering function required for optimum performance. It was found that the ABC algorithm and Cuckoo Search algorithm based speech denoising approach give better performance in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as compared to PSO based speech denoising approach. The quantitative (SNR, MSE and Maximum Error (ME)) and visual (Denoised speech signals) results show superiority of the proposed technique over the conventional and state -of-art speech signal denoising techniques. All proposed methods have been simulated in Matlab, and design results are illustrated clearly to show the superiority of the proposed method.

Keywords— Adaptive filters, Adaptive Algorithms, Artificial Bee Colony, Cuckoo search, Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm, Speech Enhancement.


[1] J.M. Gorriz, J. Ramrez, S. C. Alvarez, C. G. Puntonet, E. W. Lang, and D. Erdogmus, Jan. 2009 ―A novel LMS algorithm applied to adaptive noise cancellation,‖ IEEE Signal Processing Letters, vol. 16, pp. 44–47,

[2] Ben G., Nelson M., 2000 ―Speech and Audio Signal Processing‖ John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

[3] M.S.Ahmed, Jan.1989. ―Comparison of noisy speech enhancement algorithms in terms of LPC perturbation,‖ IEEE Trans. Acoust., Speech, Signal Processing, vol. 37, pp. 121–125,

[4] Simon Haykin, September 2001 ―Adaptive Filter theory‖, 4thed. Prentice Hall.

[5] Allam Mousa, Marwa Qadus, Sherin Bader, April 7-9 2011‖Adaptive Noise Cancellation Algorithms Sensitivity to Parameters―, The 2nd International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Systems (ICMCS'11), IEEE Catalog Number CFP731-3-CDR, ISBN: 978-1-61284-731-3, pp. 1-5, Ouarzazate, Morocco,

[6] Colin H Hansen, 2002. ―Understanding Active Noise Cancellation‖, Taylor and Francis Inc. Print ISBN: 0415231922,

[7] V.R.Vijaykumar, P.T.Vanathi, P. Kanagasapabathy, 2007. ―Modified Adaptive Filtering Algorithm for Noise Cancellation in Speech Signals‖, Electronics and Electrical Engineering, 2007 No 2(74) pp. 17-20,

[8] Xiaohui Y., Yunlong Z., Hao Z., Chen H. And Ben N., 2010 ―An Adaptive Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm with Lifecycle and Social Learning‖, Hindawi Publishing Corporation Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society, 1-20.

[9] Mitul K. A., Anil K., Girish K. S., 2012 ―Analysis and testing of PSO variants through application in EEG/ERP adaptive filtering approach‖, Biomedical Engineering Letters, , Vol. 2, 186-197.

[10] R. Eberhart, Y. Shi and J. Kennedy, 2001 ―Swarm Intelligence‖. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.

[11] Dian Palupi Rini, Siti Mariyam Shamsuddin and Siti Sophiyati Yuhaniz, 2011 ―Particle Swarm Optimization: Technique, System and Challenges‖, International Journal of Computer Applications, , Vol. 14(1), 19-27.

[12] D.J. Krusienski and W.K.Jenkins, 2003 ―Adaptive Filtering Via Particle Swarm Optimization‖, Conf Signal Syst Computer. Vol. 1, 571-575.

[13] Upal Mahbub, Celia Shahnaz and Shaikh Anowarul Fattah, 2010 ―An Adaptive Noise Cancellation Scheme Using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm‖, IEEE International Conference on Communication Control and Computing Technologies, Vol.71, 683 - 686.

[14] Ali T.Al- Awami, Azzedine Zerguine, Lahouari Cheded, Abdelmalek Zidouri, Waleed Saif, 2010 ―A new modified particle swarm optimization algorithm for adaptive equalization‖, Digital Signal Processing, 195–207.

[15] A. Chatterjeea, P.Siarry, 2006 ―Nonlinear inertia weight variation for dynamic adaptation in particle swarm optimization‖, Computers and Operations Research, Vol. 33, 859–871.

[16] Karaboga, D.:2005 ‗An Idea Based On Honey Bee Swarm for Numerical Optimization‘, Technical Report-TR06, Erciyes University, Engineering Faculty, Computer Engineering Department.

[17] Yang X.S., and Deb, S.:2009 ‗Cuckoo search via Lévy flights‘, World Congress on Nature & Biologically Inspired Computing (NaBIC 2009). IEEE Publications. 2009, pp. 210–214.


A Study on Influence of Altering The Tooth-Sum on Bending Stress In External Spur Gears Under Static Loading

Authors: A. R. Rajesh, Dr. Joseph Gonsalvis, Dr. K. A.Venugopal

Abstract - Gears are used to provide a nonslip drive in power transmission. While transmitting power, if specific requirements like load carrying capacity, wear characteristics, noise level etc. are imposed, then the shape and size of the tooth become critical parameters for analysis, thus necessitating a detailed study and modification of tooth geometry. Of the above, the load carrying capacity depends on the bending strength of the gear tooth which is normally computed using Lewis Equation. Usually standard tooth geometry is modified by profile shift using S-gearing, may be So or S+ type, with the former being more common. Tooth geometry can also be modified by way of altering the tooth-sum for a given center distance and module. This study is focused on introducing the profile shift by way of altering the tooth-sum and investigating its effect on tooth bending strength and contact ratio. Involute spur gears having tooth-sum 100, 2 mm module and 20 degree pressure angle are considered. When compared to standard gears, a reduction in bending stress by 12% for HPSTC loading and 35.28% for tip loading is observed with negative teeth alterations while 24.05% increase in contact ratio is observed with positive teeth alterations. Such betterment in performance aspects can be traded off to derive several other gearing benefits. Hence altered tooth-sum way is a unique and novel approach to profile shift in gear design. The unique advantage of this method is that it needs no structural modifications as there is no change in center distance.

Keywords - Altered tooth-sum, spur gears, bending stress, profile shift, high contact ratio, operating pressure angle.


[1 ] Maag. M, “Maag Gear Book”, Maag Gear Wheel Co. Ltd., Zurich 1963.

[2 ] Gitin maitra,“Hand book of gear design”, TMH, New Delhi.

[3 ] Oda.S and Tsubokura. K., “Effect of addendum modification on bending fatigue strength of spur gears, 1st report, Normalized steel gears”, Bulletin of JSME, Jan 1977, Vol. 20, pp 139.

[4 ] Aaron Anthony Sanders B.S, “An experimental investigation of influence of Elliptical root shapes and asymmetric teeth on root stresses and bending fatigue lives”, MS Thesis, Ohio state university, 2010.

[5 ] Joseph Gonsalvis and G.V.N.Rayudu, “Effect of varying the number of teeth on a tooth-sum for a specified center distanceExternal gears”, Personal communication


Experimental Modal Analysis of Automotive Exhaust Muffler Using Fem and FFT Analyzer”

Authors: Sunil, Dr Suresh P M

Abstract— Experimental modal analysis, also known as modal analysis or modal testing, deals with the determination of natural frequencies, damping ratios, and mode shapes through vibration testing. The exhaust muffler in an automobile plays an integral role in reducing the sound of the automobile, as well as the ride itself. In order to maintain a desired noise and comfortable ride, the modes of a muffler need to be analyzed. Modal analysis is done both experimentally through FFT analyzer and finite element analysis. The natural frequencies obtained by both the methods agree with each other. This is useful while designing of exhaust muffler to avoid the resonance.

Keywords— Experimental Modal Analysis, Exhaust Muffler, FEM, FFT


[1] Beranek, L., “Noise and Vibration Control”, McGraw- Hill, Cambridge, MA, 1988.

[2] Brian J. Schwarz & Mark H. Richardson “EXPERIMENTAL MODAL ANALYSIS” Vibrant Technology, Inc. Jamestown, California 95327, October, 1999.

[3] Wang jie et al. “The Modal Analysis of Automotive Exhaust muffler using PRO-E and ANSYS”. 2010, 3rd International Conference on Advanced Computer Theory and Engineering (ICACTE). 2010 IEEE.

[4] M Rajasekhar Reddy & K Madhava Reddy. “DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF EXHAUST MUFFLER IN AUTOMOBILES” International Journal of Automobile Engineering Research and Development (IJAuERD ) ISSN 2277-4785 Vol.2, Issue 2 Sep 2012 11-21.

[5] Tirupathi R. Chandrupatla & Ashok D. Belegundu “Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering” 3rd edition, 2001.

[6] www.vibetech.com ME’SCOPE visual engineering service and Data Physics Corporation.


Design of Secured and Efficient Wireless Sensor Network with Integration to Public Cloud for Big Data Analytics

Authors: Gayathri K, V.Ananthanarayanan

Abstract - This paper presents a design of secured and efficient Wireless Sensor Networks with integration to public cloud for big data analytics. Now-a-days sensors are widely used in day to day life. Sensors have some limitations in terms of memory, computation, storage, communication, energy. These are the area to deal with. Cloud computing is a promising technology, which provides massive storage, computation, and software services. The limitations of wireless sensor networks are the pros of cloud computing. So by integrating these both technologies we will get greater benefits and efficiency. In this paper, we propose an integration framework of wireless sensor network with cloud, sensor data will be stored cloud and that data will be used efficiently for the needful.

Keywords - Cloud computing, Big Data Analytics, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), Services.


[1 ] Pengfei You, Huiba Li, Yuxing Peng and Ziyang Li, An Integration Framework of Cloud Computing with Wireless Sensor Networks, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, Volume 214, Springer 2012.

[2 ] Wen-Yaw Chung, Pei-Shan Yu, Chao-Jen Huang, Cloud Computing System Based on Wireless Sensor Network, IEEE Proceedings of the 2013 Federated Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems pp. 877–880.

[3 ] Heikki Mahkonen, Teemu Rinta-aho, Tero Kauppinen, Mohit Sethi, Jimmy Kjällman, Patrik Salmela, Tony Jokikyyny, Demo: Secure M2M Cloud Testbe, MobiCom’13, September 30–October 4, 2013, Miami, FL, USA, ACM 978-1-4503-1999-7/13/09.

[4 ] Ahmed K, Gregory M, Integrating Wireless Sensor Networks with Cloud Computing Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Networks (MSN), IEEE Seventh International Conference on 2011, Page(s):364 – 366, ISBN:978-1-4577-2178-6.

[5 ] Perumal.B , Pallikonda Rajasekaran.M and Ramalingam.H.M, WSN Integrated Cloud for Automated Telemedicine (ATM) Based eHealthcare Application, 2012 4th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Technology, IPCBEE vol.29 (2012) © (2012) IACSIT Press, Singapore.

[6 ] Rajeev Piyare and Seong Ro Lee, Towards Internet of Things (IOTS): Integration of Wireless Sensor Network to Cloud Services for Data Collection and Sharing, International Journal of Computer Networks & Communications (IJCNC) Vol.5, No.5, September 2013.

[7 ] Peng Zhang, Zheng Yan, Hanlin Sun, A Novel Architecture Based on Cloud Computing for Wireless Sensor Network, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Computer Science and Electronics Engineering (ICCSEE 2013).

[8 ] Zhixiang Yuan, Jinxiang Cheng, The Design and Realization of Wireless Sensor Network Gateway Node, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Computer Science and Electronics Engineering (ICCSEE 2013).

[9 ] Atif Alamri, Wasai Shadab Ansari, Mohammad Mehedi Hassan, M. Shamim Hossain, Abdulhameed Alelaiwi, and M. Anwar Hossain, A Survey on Sensor-Cloud: Architecture, Applications, and Approaches, Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, Volume 2013, Article ID 917923, 18 pages.

[10 ] Sanjit Kumar Dash, Subasish Mohapatra and Prasant Kumar Pattnaik, A Survey on Applications of Wireless Sensor Network Using Cloud Computing, International Journal of Computer Science & Emerging Technologies (E-ISSN: 2044-6004), Volume 1, Issue 4, December 2010.

[11 ] Introduction to Cloud Computing, Copyright © 2010 Dialogic corporation, 07/10 12023-01.

[12 ] Ouadoudi Zytoune and Driss Aboutajdine, A Lifetime Extension Protocol for Data Gathering in Wireless Sensor Networks, ISSR Journal 2013.

[13 ] Poulami Dutta, A Secure Hierarchical Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks, AJER e-ISSN : 2320-0847 p-ISSN : 2320-0936 Volume03, Issue-02, pp-191-203, 2014.

[14 ] Rihac Mehta, O.S. Khanna, Reducing Chain Complexity using Honey Bee Optimization in Wireless sensor network, International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) - volume4Issue4 –April 2013.

[15 ] Zheng Gengsheng, Hu Zhengbing, A Clustering Protocol Using Multiple Chain Strategy in WSNs, Journal of Networks, Vol.5, No.5, May 2010.


The Impact of Virtualizationin Cloud computing

Author: R. M. Sharma

Abstract--The Cloud computing offers dynamically scalable resources provisioned as a service over the Internet. It enables individuals and organization to use various services like software as a service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Infrastructure as a Service(IaaS) over the Internet. Virtualization is the fundamental technology that powers cloud computing. Virtualization allows running multiple operating systems on a single physical system and sharing the underlying hardware resources. Virtualization is a key to building cloud based architectures because it allows greater flexibility and utilization of the underlying equipment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the impact of virtualization in cloud computing. This paper begins with a discussion on concepts and terminology of cloud computing and virtualization, then it describe the architecture of virtualization and its abstraction levels. This paper also includes some popular cloud services.

Keywords— Cloud Computing, Virtualization, Saas, PaaS, IaaS.


[1] Firas D. Ahmed , Amer Al Nejam “Cloud Computing: Technical Challenges and CloudSim Functionalities” International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), India Online ISSN: 2319-7064 pp. 26- 30

[2] Aishwarya Anand “Amazon’s Approach to Cloud Security” Proceedings of 4th IRF International Conference, Pune, 16th March2014, ISBN: 978-93-82702-66-5 pp. 173-178

[3] Ankita Desai, Rachana Oza, Pratik Sharma, Bhautik Patel “Hypervisor: A Survey on Concepts and Taxonomy” International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE) ISSN: 2278-3075, Volume-2, Issue-3, February 2013 pp. 222-225

[4] V.Vinothina, Dr.R.Sridaran, Dr.PadmavathiGanapathi “A Survey on Resource Allocation Strategies in Cloud Computing” (IJACSA) International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, Vol. 3, No.6, 2012 pp. 97-104

[5] Manoj Sharma , Keshav Jindal , Dr. S.Srinivasan “Evaluating Various Aspects of Cloud Computing Vendors with Comparison” International Journal of Research Aspects of Engineering and Management ISSN: 2348-6627, Vol. 1, Issue 1, FEB 2014, pp. 4-8

[6] Hitesh A Bheda , Chirag S Thaker “Virtualization Driven Mashup Container in Cloud Computing PaaS Model ” Proceedings published by International Journal of Computer Applications® (IJCA) International Conference on Computer Communication and Networks CSI- COMNET-2011 pp. 9-14

[7] Ahmed Shawish and Maria Salama “Cloud Computing: Paradigms and Technologies ” F. Xhafa and N. Bessis (eds.), Inter-cooperative Collective Intelligence:Techniques and Applications, Studies in Computational Intelligence 495, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-35016- 0_2, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014pp. 39-67

[8] Krishna tej Koganti, Eswar Patnala , Sai Sagar Narasingu, J.N. Chaitanya “Virtualization Technology in Cloud Computing Environment” International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 3, March 2013) pp.771-773

[9] Pankaj Sareen “ Cloud Computing: Types, Architecture, Applications, Concerns, Virtualization and Role of IT Governance in Cloud ” International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software EngineeringVolume 3, Issue 3, March 2013 ISSN: 2277 128Xpp. 533-538

[10] L. Shi, H. Chen, J. Sun,” vCUDA: GPU accelerated high performance computing in virtual machines,” in: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Processing, 2009

[11] http://www.cse.iitd.ernet.in/~sbansal/csl862- virt/2010/readings/software_hardware_tech_x86_virt.pdf


Implementation of College Network Scenario Module by Using CCNA

Authors: Jitender Singh, Anshu Rani

Abstract– There is different users of the project; basically the users are present at different places in different groups. By this, a request is generated by one user of either to communicate with other user or users or sharing some data with them. There can be a state where a message is to be broadcasted by a user to entire college. So this paper is about communication among different users present at different locations, sharing this common network. CNS Stands for the college network scenario.



[1] Cisco Certified Network Associate Study Guide sixth edition by Todd Lammle

[2] Cisco Certified Network Associate Study Guide fifth edition by Todd Lammle

[3] http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=328773&seqNu m=3

[4] Interconnecting Cisco Devices Part 1 by Cisco

[5] Interconnecting Cisco Devices Part 2 by Cisco

[6] www.wikiepedia.com

[7] Computer Networks-A top-down approach by Kurose and Ross.

[8] http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/routers/ps214/products _tech_note09186a00801f5d85.shtml

[9] http://www.symantec.com/connect/forums/sep-client-switchcomputer-mode-user-mode-automatically-and-moving-othergroup

[10] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Router_(computing)


Fingerprint Recognition using Core Detection Technique

Authors: Manisha Yadav, Parveen Yadav

Abstract— a single biometric indicator used in biometric system that is uncomfortable with noisy data in user verification process. There are some kinds of restrictions on degree of freedom with some unacceptable error rates. With existing of these problems it’s very difficult for particular to improve the performance a biometric system. In biometric system finger recognition is very necessary process for safety and security purpose. In our thesis work we are going to improve performance of fingerprint recognition process using Core Detection Technique. Image of fingerprint is binarised in first step and apply thinning process to make it ready for further process of detection. There are many techniques available in market but as comparison on basis of result with the existing, core detection performs well. Core Detection Technique performs best at level for recognition of fingerprint in biometric system.

Keywords— Fingerprint recognition, Minutiae, Core detection technique, Binarization.


[1] Arun Ross, Anil Jain, ―Information fusion in biometrics‖, Pattern Recognition Letters 24 (2003) 2115–2125.

[2] Shlomo Greenberg, Mayer Aladjem, Daniel Kogan and Itshak Dimitrov, ―Fingerprint Image Enhancement using Filtering Techniques‖, presented at 15th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, 2000.

[3] Jinwei Gu, Jie Zhou, and Chunyu Yang, ―Fingerprint Recognition by Combining Global Structure and Local Cues‖, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 1952 – 1964, (2006).

[4] V. Vijaya Kumari and N. Suriyanarayanan, ―Performance Measure of Local Operators in Fingerprint Detection‖, Academic Open Internet Journal, vol. 23, pp. 1-7, (2008).

[5] Raju Sonavane and B. S. Sawant, ―Noisy Fingerprint Image Enhancement Technique for Image Analysis: A Structure Similarity Measure Approach‖, Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, vol. 7 no. 9, pp. 225-230, (2007).

[6] Hartwing Fronthaler, Klaus kollreider, and Josef Bigun, ―Local Features for Enhancement and Minutiae Extraction in Fingerprints‖, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 17, no, 3, pp. 354- 363, (2008).

[7] Mana Tarjoman, and Shaghayegh Zarei, ―Automatic Fingerprint Classification using Graph Theory‖, Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 30, pp. 831-835, (2008).


Image Coding With EZT, SPIHT Algorithm And Context Modeling Using Wavelet Transform

Authors: A. Balamurugan, T. Muthamil, S. Kannan, Vaishnodevi

Abstract -Wavelet transform is a type of signal representation that can give the frequency content of the signal at a particular instant of time. The Objective of Compression is to reduce the memory and efficient use of bandwidth. JPEG-2000 is an emerging standard for still image compression. Image compression must not only reduce the necessary storage and bandwidth requirements, but also allow extraction for editing, processing, and targeting particular devices and applications. Entropy coding is carried out as context-dependent, binary, arithmetic coding of bitplanes. Wavelet filters with more analyzing vanishing moments generally perform well with natural and smooth images and not so with images with a lot of edges and high frequency components. The analysis filter bank has decomposed the image into four parts. LL is the analog of the low pass image. HL, LH and HH each contain high frequency information and are analogs of the wavelet components. In analogy with the wavelet transform, we can now leave the _ wavelet sub images HL, LH and HH unchanged, and apply our filter bank to the LL sub image. Then this block in the upper lefthand corner of the analysis image will be replaced by four blocks L’L’, H’L’, L’H’ and H’H’, in the usual order. We use the approach of Embedded Zero Tree Algorithm in both MATLAB® and VHDL and it is efficient for hardware implementation. Embedded Zero Tree Algorithm, Set Partitioning in Hierarchical trees algorithm and EZW with Context modeling algorithm were compared using the results of Peah to signal noise Ratio.


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