Volume 8, Issue 4, April 2019



Power, Automation and Industrialization: The Nigerian Experience

Authors: Stanley Okiy, Chidozie C. Nwobi-Okoye

Abstract-Electricity provides power that drives automation and industrialization. Most developing countries are experiencing acute power shortages and Nigeria is not an exception. The power situation in Nigeria is so bad that a lot of local industries have been forced to close down. In this work, the state of power generation in Nigeria is surveyed and the current level compared to the level needed to successfully power and industrialize the economy. The results show that for the industrial development of Nigeria, She needs to generate 170MW daily. With sufficient power supply, investment in automation technologies and robotics would boost the productivity and output of local industries thereby creating a buoyant economy.

Keyword- Automation; Electric power; Industrialization; Nigeria


[1] Greenwood, J. (1999). The third industrial revolution: Technology, productivity, and income inequality. Economic Review-Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, 35(2), 2.

[2] Lasi, H., Fettke, P., Kemper, H. G., Feld, T., & Hoffmann, M. (2014). Industry 4.0. Business & Information Systems Engineering, 6(4), 239.

[3] Lee, J., Bagheri, B., & Kao, H. A. (2015). A cyber-physical systems architecture for industry 4.0-based manufacturing systems. Manufacturing Letters, 3, 18-23.

[4] Chete, L.N, J. O. Adeoti, F. M. Adeyinka, and O. Ogundele (2012). Industrial development and growth in Nigeria: Lessons and challenges. Working Paper No. 8, Brookings Institution, USA.

[5] Adeoye, B.W. (2004). Industrial Development in Nigeria in the Context of Globalization. 45th Annual Conference of the Nigerian Economic Society(NES), Abuja, 24th - 26th August, 2004.

[6] Kilby, P. (1969). Industrialization in an Open Economy: Nigeria, 1945-1966. Cambridge University Press, London, UK.

[7] EKUNDARE, O. (1973). An Economic History of Nigeria 1860 – 1960, London: Methuen.

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[9] ARIKAWE, A. (1987). “The Rise of Industrialism in the Lagos Area”. In A. Adefuye et al, (eds), History of the Peoples of Lagos State, Lagos: Lantern Books.

[10] Awosope, C.A. (2014). Nigeria Electricity Industry: Issues, Challenges and Solutions. 38th Public Lecture Series, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria, 2014.

[11] Nigerian Presidential Task Force on Power (PTFP), (2013). 2013 Year in Review, pg 16.

[12] Nigerian Presidential Task Force on Power (PTFP), (2014). 2014 Year in Review, pg 16.

[13] Yakubu, Y., Manu, S.B. and Bala, U. (2015). Electricity Supply and Manufacturing Output in Nigeria: Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Bound Testing Approach. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 6(17): 1-14.

[14] Marchat, J.M, Nasir, J., Ramachandran, V., Shah, M.K., Tyler, G. and Zhao, L. (2002). Results of the Nigerian Firm Survey. Regional Program on Enterprise Development, Africa Private Sector Group, The World Bank.

[15] Nwobi-Okoye, C.C. (2018). Transfer Function Based Performance Assessment of Power Distribution Facilities: A Case Study of Distribution Transformers. Journal of Electrical Systems and Information Technology (Elsevier), 5 (2018) 977–993. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jesit.2016.12.001.

[16] Nwobi-Okoye, C.C. and Igboanugo, A.C. (2012). Performance Evaluation of Hydropower Generation System Using Transfer Function Modelling. International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, Elsevier, 43(1): 245-254.

[17] Nwobi-Okoye, C.C. and Igboanugo, A.C. (2015). Performance Appraisal of Gas Based Electric Power Generation System Using Transfer Function Modelling. Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 6 (2015): 541-551.





Accident Detection System using Smart Phone

Authors: A. Dhanush, Dr. Shruti Bhargava Choubey

Abstract- Today with the increasing traffic, the probability of accidents has also increased. The Victims of the accidents can be saved easily if the accidents occur in the urban areas with the help of the Emergency services we have. Our system helps in saving the victims at any remote area with the maximum possible help from the Emergency Services nearby to that location and also at the same time informs the appropriate persons related to the victim. This System is called SOS (Save Our Souls) TRANSMISSION system. The idea has been developed keeping in mind the considerations of cost and compatibility with existing system at the same time providing maximum safety to the people. The Short Message Service (SMS) as it is popularly referred to, is made use of for this purpose. The solution offered is the Force-Transducer method. The victim is assumed to be unconscious and also the accident is detected mechanically. Detailed simulation results at a scaled down level area unit provided for this answer.

Keywords: The Short Message Service, Smart Phone


[1] Bhumkar.S.P., Deotare. V. V., R. V. Babar.(2012) “Accident Avoidance and Detection on Highways”, International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, Vol.3, Issue 2, pp. 247-252.

[2] Carlo Tacconi., SabatoMellone., Lorenzo Chiari.(2011) “Smartphone-Based Applications for Investigating Falls and Mobility”, 5th International journal on Pervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare (Pervasive Health) and Workshops, pp. 258-261.

[3] Frank Sposaro., Gary Tyson.(2007) “Ifall: An Android Application for all Monitoring and response”, 29th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS, pp. 1367-1370.

[4] John Whipple., William Arensman., Marian Starr Boler.(2009) “A Public Safety Application of GPS-Enabled Smartphones and the Android Operating System”, Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE International Conference on Systems, pp.2059-2061.

[5] KoteswaraRao.P., Haneef Babu.SK.MD.(2013) “Scening of an Accidental Alarm System of Vehicles With a Heartbeat Sensor”, International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) Vol. 2, Issue 2, pp. 191-194.

[6] Matsubara.A., Tanka.S.( 2002) “Unconstrained and Noninvasive Measurement of Heartbeat and Respiration for Drivers Using a Strain” ,SICE 2002, pp.1067-1069.

[7] Mohamed Fazeen., Brandon Gozick., Ram Dantu.,MoizBhukhiya., and Marta C.González.(2012) “Safe Driving Using Mobile Phones”, IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems, vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 1462-1468.

[8] Prabakar S., Porkumaran K.,Samson Isaac J and GunaSundari J.(2008) “An Enhanced Accident Detection and Victim Status Indicating System”,Indian Journal ofNeurotrauma(IJNT), pp. 351-356.

[9] Rahul Tiwari., Atul Kumar Singh.(2013) “Using Android Platform to Detect Free Fall”, International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Networks, pp. 161-165.

[10] Salas K Jose., X. Anitha Mary., Namitha Mathew.(2013) “Arm 7 Based Accident Alert and Vehicle Tracking System”, International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE) ISSN: 2278-3075, Vol.2, Issue-4, pp. 93-96.

[11] Shih-HauFang., Yi-Chung Liang., Kuan-Ming Chiu.(2011) “Developing a Mobile Phone- Based Fall Detection System on Android Platform”,International Conference on Electrical Engineering/ Electronics Computer Telecommunications and Information Technology, pp. 143-146.

[12] Shin kyung-lee., doo seopyun.(2012) “Development of Eco-Driving and Safe Driving Components” 6th international journal on computer science and convergence information technology, pp. 561-565.

[13] Vo Quang Viet., Gueesang Lee., Deokjai Choi.(2012) “Fall Detection Based on Movement and Smart Phone Technology”, International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, pp. 987-992.

[14] Warsuzarina Mat Jubadi.,SitiFaridatul., AisyahMohdSahak.(2009) “Heartbeat Monitoring Alert Via SMS”, IEEE journal on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ISIEA 2009), pp. 978-983

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A Study on Night Vision Technology

Authors: B. Uday Kiran, Shruti Bharagava Choubey, P S Ravali

Abstract- Safety and security of life are the two most successful words in the field of transport and manufacturing. The world has known from being a just simple form of day to day life to being aeon of mean and daring machines. Thus the safety of the people both inside and outside the vehicle is of prime concern in the car manufacturing industry and scientists are working day in and day out to ensure more and more complex forms of security for the human kind.After dark, your chances of being in a fatal vechicle crash go up sharply, though the traffic is way down. Inadequate illumination is one of the major factors in all the car crashes that occur between midnight and 6 a.m. Headlights provide about 50 meters of visibility on a dark road, but it takes nearly 110 meters to come to a full stop from 100 km/hr. At that speed, you may not respond fast enough to an unexpected event, simply because the bright spot provided by your headlights doesn't give you enough time.Thus emerged the night vision systems that use infrared sensors to let driver see as much as 3 or 4 times farther ahead and help them quickly distinguish among objects.

Keywords- Transport, Inadequate illumination, Headlights, Visibility, Night vision.


[1] Jones, Willie D. (March 2006). "Safer Driving in The Dead of Night". IEEE Spectrum. Spectrum.ieee.org. Retrieved 2009-12-08.

[2] "Night vision enhancement systems". I-CAR Advantage Online. I-car.com. 2006-05-15. Retrieved 2009-12-08.

[3] Austin, Ian (October 31, 2005). "Illuminating Road Hazards That Lurk Beyond Lights". New York TImes.

[4] http://media.daimler.com/dcmedia/0-921-1685654-1-815115-1-0-0-0-0-1-0-1549054-0-1-0-0-0-00.html?TS=1419958720004 Be ahead: the new Mercedes-Benz S-Class - Superlative in design and technology

[5] http://media.daimler.com/dcmedia/0-921-1198131-11205235-1-0-0-1205704-0-1-0-1549054-0-1-0-0-0-00.html?TS=1419958869248 The 2009 Mercedes-Benz S-Class: Pacemaker in automotive development

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A Study on Cryogenics

Authors: K Nived Maanyu, Shruti Bhargava Choubey, P S Ravali

Abstract- This paper focus on an “cryogenics” as it is the production and behaviour of materials at very low temperatures. A person who studies about the components that are subjected to extraordinarily cold temperatures is named a cryogenicist.


[1] Bilstein, roger e. (1996). Stages to saturn: a technological history of the apollo/saturn launch vehicles (nasa sp-4206) (the nasa history series). Nasa history office. Pp. 89–91. Isbn 0-7881-8186-6.

[2] "dichlorodifluoromethane at pubchem".

[3] "propane at pubchem".

[4] J. M. Nash, 1991, "vortex expansion devices for high temperature cryogenics", proc. Of the 26th intersociety energy conversion engineering conference, vol. 4, pp. 521–525.

[5] "cryonics is not the same as cryogenics". Retrieved 5 march 2013.

[6] Cryogenic systems by randall barron mcgraw-hill book company.

[7] Thermal, timmy. "cryogenic labels". Midcomdata. Retrieved 11 august 2014.

[8] Gantz, carroll (2015). Refrigeration: a history. Jefferson, north carolina: mcfarland & company, inc. P. 227. Isbn 978-0-7864-7687-9.

[9] "eso signs technology transfer licence agreement for cooling system". Retrieved 11 june 2015.

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A Study on Cordect Technology

Authors: B. Akhil, Shruti Bhargava Choubey

Abstract- The traditional wired native loop accustomed connect every phonephone subscriber to the closest exchange is pricey and unreliable. Wireless native Loop (WLL) systems for the most part eliminate these copper wires exploitation wireless technologies and will give a value effective answer. corDECT is one such WLL system, supported the DECT (Digital increased conductor Telecommunications) commonplace, that gives toll-quality voice and knowledge capability at a value well below that of a wired local loop. A closed Queueing Network Model (QNM) is projected for the corDECT system. The model is validated against actual measurements. Our model predicts that the one,000-line corDECT system would meet a Busy Hour decision try (BHCA) of thirty six,000 calls/hr, that is way larger than its demand of twenty,000 calls/hr. The bottlenecks that limit the BHCA to thirty six,000 calls/hr were known by the model. We show however the system might be dilated to a ten,000-line exchange with a BHCA of over two,10,000 calls/hr. We additionally investigate the practicability of implementing sixty four kbps knowledge service in conjunction with voice. It is shown that this requires modest hardware improvements.


[1] A. Balaji, “Performance of the corDECT Voice/Data Wireless Local Loop”, MS Thesis, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, IIT, Madras-600 036, June 1998.

[2] A. Balaji, Timothy A. Gonsalves, and R. Kumar, “The Performance of the corDECT Voice/Data Wireless Local Loop”, submitted to J-IETE, September 1998.

[3] Analog Devices Inc., Norwood, MA, USA, ADSP-2100 Family User’s Manual, Third Edition, September 1995.

[4] Analog Devices Inc., USA, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, India, Midas Communication Technologies (P)Ltd., Madras, India, corDECT Wireless Local Loop, Technical Report, July 1997.

[5] Ashok Jhunjunwala and Bhaskar Ramamurthi, “Wireless in Indian Telecommunication Network”, Proc. Infocom Bombay, India, December 1994.

[6] Ashok Jhunjunwala and Bhaskar Ramamurthi, “Wireless in Local Loop: Some Key Issues”, Proc. IETE Technical Convention, Pune, India, September/October 1995.

[7] Bhaskar Ramamurthi, Personal Discussion, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras,India, 1998.

[8] D. Lazowska, J. Zahorjan, G.S. Graham and K.C. Sevcik,Quantitative System Performance: Computer System Analysis using QueuingNetwork Models, Prentice-HallInc., 1984.

[9] ETR 185: Radio Equipment and Systems (RES), Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT); Data Services Profile (DSP); Profiles overview, European Telecommunications Standards Institute, December 1995.

[10] prETS 300 175-1: Radio Equipment and Systems (RES);Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT);Common Interface (CI); Part 1: Overview, European Telecommunications Standards Institute, June 1996.

[11] prETS 300 175-4: Radio Equipment and Systems (RES);Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT);Common Interface (CI); Part 4: Data Link Control (DLC)Layer, European Telecommunications Standards Institute,June 1996.

[12] R. Steele, Mobile Radio

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A Study on the Nanotechnology – The New Frontier of the Future Technology

Authors: Ganta Raghavender Rao, Shruti Bhargava Choubey, P. S. Ravali

Abstract- Imagine the chips embedded in the human body reporting every body movement and just waiting to strike at those nasty bacterial invaders, clothing smart enough to monitor out health and save us from environmental hazards, huge buildings and machines having the capability to repair and adjust themselves to the vagaries of the environment, or a regular wristwatch doubling up as a supercomputer. Thanks to nanotechnology, all of these wonders, and many more, are possible. Scientific discoveries and inventions have in fact propelled man to challenge new frontiers. And with his superior brain, man has been able to deliver most of these goodies. Nanotechnology is one such technological wonders that we are experiencing now. Scientists and engineers are working round the clock to achieve breakthroughs that could possibly be the answer to human misery. This paper mainly contains about Nanotechnology and its ‘various’ applications. And this tells about the history of Nanotechnology and its necessity. This also discusses how it will improve our lives and about the applications in wide range.

Keywords- Embedded, environmental hazards, inventions.


[1] Electronics for you-April, June 2003

[2] www.forsight.org

[3] www.nanomedicine.com

[4] IEEE spectrum- Nanotechnology

[5] www.nanoquest.com

[6] www.zyvex.com

[7] www.nanodot.com

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A Study on Plasma Antenna

Authors: N. Sahithi, Shruthi Bhargava Choubey, P S Ravali

Abstract- In the era of high speed communication and cognitive radio, Plasma antenna grown for its beam forming, to hide and fast switching properties. Using non thermal plasma sources in glass tubes, containing neutral gases, it is possible to design a Plasma Antenna. This paper shows the status of Plasma Antenna research, basic operation and its scope for the future.


[1] Hettinger J, 1919, U.S. Patent No. 1309031

[2] G A Askaryan, 1965, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys.

[3] W L Kang et al, M Rader, I Alexe, 1996, Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science, Boston, 3-5, p 261.

[4] G. G. Borg et al, J. H. Harris, N. M. Martin,D. Thorncraft, R. Milliken, D.G. Miljak, B. Kwan, T. Ng, and J. Kircher, 2000, Plasmas as antennas: Theory, experiment and applications, Physics Of Plasmas, Volume 7,Number 5.

[5] John Phillip Rayner et al, Adrian Philip Whichello, and Andrew Desmond Cheetham, 2004, Physical Characteristics of Plasma Antennas, IEEE Transactions On Plasma Science, VOL. 32, NO. 1.

[6] LIANG Chao et al, XU Yue-Min, WANG Zhi-Jiang, 2008, Numerical Simulation of Plasma Antenna with FDTD Method, Chines Physics Letter,Vol. 25, No. 10.

[7] Rajneesh Kumar, Dhiraj Bora, 2010, A reconfigurable plasma antenna,Journal Of Applied Physics.

[8] H Conrads, M Schmidt, 2000, Plasma generation and plasma sources,Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 9.

[9] V Kumar et al, M Mishra, N K Joshi, 2011, Study of a fluorescent tube as Plasma antenna, Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 24,Page 17-26.

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Optical Computers

Authors: K. Shanthan, Shruti Bhargava Choubey, P S Ravali

Abstract- In the fashionable age laptop should perform tasks like the speed of sunshine, in order that it's ready to management automaton in area, 50 million kilometers away. This cause the thought to make AN “Optical Computer”, that job open on lightweight (photons) rather than electrons or combination of each. Research is fully progress into a next generation laptop utilizing the properties of sunshine. The alleged “Optical Computer” of the longer term is that the subject of dialogue by researchers everywhere the globe, on its potentialities and issues on the thanks to realization.


[1] Debabrata Goswami , “ article on optical computing, optical components and storage systems,” Resonance- Journal of science education pp:56-71 July 2003

[2] Hossin Abdeldayem,Donald. O.Frazier, Mark.S.Paley and William.K, “Recent advances in photonic devices for optical computing,” science.nasa.gov Nov 2001

[3] Mc Aulay,Alastair.D , “Optical computer architectures and the application of optical concepts to next generation computers”

[4] John M Senior , “Optical fiber communications –principles and practice”

[5] Mitsuo Fukuda “Optical semiconductor devices”

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A Study on the Memristor

Authors: D. Ajay, Shruti Bhargava Choubey, P S Ravali

Abstract- The memristor (short for memory resistor) is a yet quite unknown circuit element, though equally fundamental as resistors, capacitors, and coils. It was foretold from theory arguments nearly forty years past, however not realised as a physical element till recently. The memristor shows many attention-grabbing choices once describing electrical phenomena, particularly at tiny (molecular or cellular) scales and may specially be helpful for bioimpedance and organic phenomenon modeling. It also can offer North American country a richer and far improved abstract understanding of the many such phenomena. Up till these days the tools accessible for circuit modeling are restricted to the 3 circuit components (RLC) furthermore because the wide used constant section component (CPE). However, together component has been missing in our modeling chest, many bioelectrical phenomena may have been described incompletely as they are indeed memristive. Such memristive behavior isn't potential to capture inside a standard RLC framework. In this paper we'll introduce the memristor and appearance at bioelectrical memristive phenomena. The goal is to elucidate the new memristor’s properties during a easy manner furthermore on highlight its importance and connection. We conclude that memristors should be enclosed as a without delay used building block for bioimpedance and bioelectrical information analysis and modeling.

Keywords- Memristor, bioimpedance, bioelectricity, new circuit element, electrical memory.


[1] Chua LO. Memristor - The missing circuit element. IEEE Trans. Circuit Theory. 1971;18;507-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCT.1971.1083337

[2] Strukov DB, Snider GB, Stewart DR, Williams RS. The missing memristor found. Nature.

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