Volume 6, Issue 1, January 2017


To Identify the Root Cause for Mould Level Fluctuations in Continuous Casting of Slab.

Authors: Rajendra Tathicherla, Anil Kumar S

Abstract -Mould level Fluctuation is one of the common problems in continuous casting of Slab. Some fluctuations in the smaller range are inevitable and are generally allowed if they are within standard tolerance limits . But Some fluctuations are of bigger range and are beyond tolerance limits and are not allowed , which if allowed would have impact on the quality of cast product . These restrictions drive any Metallurgist to trace the root cause for this bigger range of fluctuations. We as Metallurgists in the quest to trace cause had also used an innovative approach to identify the cause for MLF using Fast Fourier transform of drives currents and MLF. Some more probable reasons were analysed in detail and is proposed and presented in this paper.

Keywords- Mould level fluctuation, Clogging, MLF, Stopper mechanism, Level sensor.


[1] By W.R.Irving. The institute of material science, 1993, Carlton house London.

[2] Generation Mechanism of Unsteady Bulging in Continuous Casting-1-Development of Method for Measurement of Unsteady bulging by Hiroyuki

[3] Innovative Control Methods to Overcome Periodical Disturbances on Continuous Caster Mold Level by Dr Michel Dussud SERT Metal



Control of Maize Fungal Diseases using Essential Oils Extracted from Rosemary and Eucalyptus in Egerton University Main Campus Njoro, Kenya.

Authors: Paul Njenga Waithaka, Eliud Mugu Gathuru, Benson Muriuki Githaiga, Jane Wanjiru Muthoni, Linet Teresa Laban

Abstract-- Maize fungal pathogens pose a big risk to human life today. Some fungal pathogens have been linked with triggering tumorous growth in human cells. The present study was meant to isolate common fungal pathogens of stored maize grains and testing their sensitivity to essential oils extracted from rosemary and eucalyptus. The fungal pathogens were isolated using potato dextrose agar and characterised using cultural, morphological and biochemical assays. Sensitivity to essential oils was carried out using perpendicular method. The most common fungal pathogens were Aspergillus spp. (42%), Penicillium spp. (25%), Fusarium spp. (20%), and Helminthosporium spp. (13%). There was a relationship between heating time and yield of essential oils in rosemary (r=0.99) and eucalyptus (r=0.99). On the other hand, there was no significant difference in the amount of essential oils produced by rosemary and eucalyptus (P=0.08). In addition, there was a significant difference in growth inhibition of the fungal pathogens by essential oils from rosemary and eucalyptus (P=0.000407). The most prevalent fungal pathogens in maize seeds are Penicillium spp., Helminthosporiun spp, Aspergillus spp. and Fusarium spp. Rosemary and eucalyptus spp. produce essentials oils that are capable of controlling maize fungal pathogens. There is need to properly store maize to avoid fungal contamination which can lead to fatal human illnesses. In addition, the extraction of essential oils in large scale is highly recommended.

Keyword- Egerton, Essential oils, Eucalyptus, Maize fungal diseases, Rosemary, Njoro.


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Precision Apiculture in Mexico, Current Status and Perspectives.

Author: Jaime Cuauhtemoc Negrete

Abstract—Beekeeping in Mexico has great socioeconomic and ecological importance, since it is considered as one of the main cattle-raising activities generating foreign exchange, generally this activity is only associated with production of honey, pollen, royal jelly, propolis, but bees are fundamental for a balance of the environment since the bees when obtaining the food of the flowers foment in the plants the capacity to fertilize itself. During 2015 honey exports reached 45 thousand tons with a value of 150 million dollars, volume that represented the most important sale of the last 25 years . Precision beekeeping or Precision Apiculture consists of implementing technologies that allow us to monitor and control the different variables that are involved in this activity. Within these variables we have moisture, temperature, weight, amount of food and all data that may be considered relevant to collect information. Although one of the major limitations to the access of this type of technology is usually its high cost and low knowledge of the beekeeper in the use of these instruments, this type of innovations could contribute to the achievement of higher yields . Therefore, the training and integration of other disciplines in the development of these new technologies is important. To advance towards a much more technological and professionalized beekeeping, an objective that can be achieved through working together among the agents involved. This is the objective of the present study to know the state of precision apiculture in the country and propose alternatives for its implementation, so that the country continues to advance in this segment and is increasingly positioned worldwide. Keywords—Apiculture, México, Precision Beekeeping, Mechatronics.


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Design and Development of Biogas Production System From Waste Coffee Pulp and its Waste Water Around Tepi

Author: Mulugeta Tadesse, Mebratu Adamu

Abstract -Many coffee producing enterprises dispose coffee by-product like coffee pulp and its waste water after washing to the environment and which cases environmental pollution by bad smell and visual pollution. These by-products of coffee production mainly coffee pulp and waste water impure discharge to the nearby surface water and also underground water and damages it. This project research primarily conducted to come-up with detail design of bio gas digester to get clean useful bio gas from coffee wastes like coffee pulp, and its waste water based on the data of the overall environmental conditions of Tepi. Therefore, the problems indicated in the above would be corrected by utilizing of unnecessary wastes during coffee preparing for its quality and useful methane and organic fertilizer after digestion will be got. A bio gas digester is designed for waste coffee pulp in both wet and dry case and its waste water. The system design conducted by using 300 liter plastic water tank and internal tire of Bajaj conduit used to collect the output bio gas from the digester tank. Therefore, for the total volume the digester, the amount of daily fresh discharge estimated after its retention time (32 days) is 5 kg, and required proportional mount of water is 2.5 liter for wet and 53.61 liter of water for dry case. Accordingly the estimation, bio gas production rate is plotted. However, the production rate of bio gas production differs as environmental temperature change the daily production amount of methane rich gas maximum 24.35 liter in wet case and 8.70 liter in dry case. Therefore, for the design and construction of bio gas digester in any size can easily estimate as the requirement of bio gas energy. Producing bio gas from waste coffee pulp and its waste water through anaerobic digestion system solves the environmental polluting problems of coffee preparing enterprises around Tepi town. Keywords-- Bio gas, Bio gas digester, Coffee producing enterprises, Coffee pulp


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