Volume 3, Issue 4, October 2014 (Title of Paper )

Page No.

Technologies for the Removal of Dissolved Inorganic Substances Contained in Wastewater

Authors: Gheorghe – Constantin IONESCU, George – Lucian IONESCU

Abstract – The purpose of this paper is to outline the necessity of advanced urban wastewater, which contain residual substances that are scarcely removed or practically unaltered through means of traditional bio-mechanical treatment steps (detergents, phosphates, nitrogen based compounds, persistent organic compounds, pesticides, diverse chemical compounds), which have a devastating impact upon the environment. The paper presents four technological schemes, for ultra filtration procedures and reverses osmosis within a single step, as well as for phosphorous removal by utilizing lime, all of which are applied toward removing inorganic dissolved substances contained in wastewater.

Keywords – chemical precipitation, ultra filtration, reverse osmosis, electro dialysis

[1] Ionescu George – Lucian, Ionescu Gh. C.; Sâmbeteanu Aura, Tehnologii moderne pentru epurarea apelor uzate, Editura MatrixRom – Bucureşti, 2013 (315 pg.) ISBN 978-606-25-0007-8.

[2] Martinez, S. G. Alternating aerobic and anaerobic operation of an activated sludge plant. JWPCF, februarie, 1987.

[3] Ionescu, Gh.C., Sisteme de epurare a apelor uzate, Editura MatrixRom Bucureşti, 2010.

[4] Robescu Diana, Iliescu S., Robescu D.N. ş.a., Controlul automat al proceselor de epurare a apelor uzate, Editura Tehnică Bucureşti, 2008.

[5] Gerber, M., Roland Span- An Analysis of Available Mathematical Models for Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Substances for Production of Biogas, International Gas Research Conference, Paris, 2008

[6] Robescu Diana, Modelarea proceselor biologice de epurare a apelor uzate, Editura Politehnica Press Bucureşti, 2009.

[7] Gligor E., Contribuţii la optimizarea energetică a instalaţiilor şi echipamentelor din cadrul staţiilor de epurare a apelor uzate. Teză de doctorat, Oradea, 2011.

[8] Ionescu, Gh. C.; Ionescu, Daniela-Smaranda – Phisycal and Chemical Techniques for Removing Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Residual Waters – International Symposia Risk Factors for Environment and Food Safety & Natural Resources and Sustainable Development, Faculty of Environmental Protection, Nov. 6-7, Oradea, 2009.


Simulation of Active Control of Chatter Vibrations

Author: Anthony S White

Abstract—. This paper outlines a strategy for the active control of the self-excited vibration of machine tools which arises when metal is turned, ground or milled. The requisite sensor and actuators for successful operation of such a scheme are outlined. Examples of the results of typical sensors are illustrated in a brief review of previous work. A simple single degree of freedom model of chatter is simulated, although a higher order system could be included to model the chatter process for control purposes. The effect of using different sensors feedback is also considered. Several control strategies are demonstrated. These show that the vibration can be reduced to less than 10% of its' original value in less than 10 cycles. The implications regarding problems of implementation are discussed

Keywords— Chatter Vibration, Active control, Simulation, PDF control, PID control, LQR control, Production engineering, Turning

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A Review of CO2 Behavior During Geological Storage and Leakage Assessment

Authors: Xiaohui Zhang, Boyun Guo

Abstract— The increasing emission of CO2 can cause Greenhouse effect and CO2 has been a major challenge to the global environment. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is an effective method of mitigation of Greenhouse effect. In this work, the important properties of CO2 are introduced. The solubility of CO2 in water and brine increases as pressure increases. The reaction between CO2 and water will form carbonic acid. Also, some properties of CO2 will change with pressure and temperature and generally speaking, the injected CO2 would be in a dense, supercritical phase in geologic sink. CO2 geological storage can happen through different mechanisms- Solubility Trapping; Hydrodynamic Trapping; Chemical Trapping. The CO2 storage capacity and injectivity can be evaluated through different methods based on different types of storage site. Depleted oil and gas reservoirs are the straightforward to estimate the storage capacity and injectivity due to the experience gained in so long history. Deep saline aquifers are believed to have the most potential to storage CO2 but further studies have to be performed to evaluate the capacity and injectivity. Several case studies are shown about CO2 storage capacity and injectivity. CO2 leakage mechanisms determinate how CO2 leaks form the geological sinks. Wells, consisting of different components, may provide the leakage pathways for CO2 . CO2 /Brine surface dissolution is a useful strategy which can increase the CO2 storage efficiency. This strategy requires that additional wells should be drilled. But in current field practice, CO2 is injected into abandoned wells.

Keywords— CO2 , Geological Storage, Leakage, Review.

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Neural Networks for Assessing Shear Strength of Soils

Authors: R. Chitra, Manish Gupta

Abstract— Over the last few years or so, the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) has increased in many areas of engineering. In particular, ANNs have been applied to many geotechnical engineering problems such as to predict pile capacity, settlement, liquefaction etc. The correlations between shear strength parameters and other soil properties individually are common among Geotechnical engineers. But establishing a correlation by assessing the shear strength parameters of any type of soil using all other soil properties is as such impossible generally. The existing correlations are mostly one to one in nature or at the most two only. Attempts were made to assess strength parameters of soils using various other engineering and physical properties using the ANN approach. A model has been created using a set of data and the same has been validated. The paper presents the model for assessing the strength parameters modelled with the optimal input physical parameters viz. Grain Size Distribution, Plasticity Index and Dry Density.

Keywords— Angle of Shearing Resistance, Artificial Neural Networks, Cohesion, Correlations, Shear Strength

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[6] Chitra,R., Manish Gupta and A.K.Dhawan (2004) ―Assessing Strength of Soils – An ANN Approach‖. Proceedings of International workshop on ―Risk assessment in site characterization and Geotechnical Design‖, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 26-27 November 2004, pp 182 - 188.

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[10] Manish Gupta, Chitra, R. and Dhawan, A.K, (2005), ―Prediction of shear strength properties of soils using ANN‖, Proceedings of National Conference on GEOPREDICT 2005, IIT, Chennai, June 2005


Manufacturing of Bricks Using Tannery Effluent sludge

Authors: M. Angeline Swarna, R. Venkatakrishnaiah

Abstract— Tanneries in India are mainly located in four states of Tamilnadu, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. There are nearly 900 tanneries in Tamilnadu. The wastewater from the tannery industries are sent to tannery Effluent Treatment Plant. The sludge resulting from tannery effluents plants creates problems of disposal. General dewatered sludge is disposed off by spreading on the land or by land filling. However, for highly organized cities, sludge disposal by landfilling might not be appropriate due to land limitation. This project will lead to evaluate the suitability of sludge in manufacturing of bricks. Tannery sludge can replace cement up to 20% and quarry dust can replace sand up to 100% in cement bricks. The properties of tannery sludge and quarry dust is found out by using standard test procedures. In this project different proportions of cement, sludge and quarry dust are thoroughly mixed and moulded in the cube size of 7.045 cm X 7.045 cm X 7.045 cm and test were performed for the property of comprehensive strength for 7 days and 14 days of curing and 24 hours of sun drying.

Keywords— Bricks, Quarry Dust, Tannery,

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A Review on Image Denoising Techniques Using Wavelet Transform Methods

Authors: Vinita Arun Chaudhari, Shrikant Lade

Abstract- The research area of image processing grew from electrical engineering as an addition of the signal processing branch. The enormous amount of data necessary for images is a main reason for the growth of many areas within the research field of computer imaging such as image processing and compression. The pre dealing being worked upon is the de noising of images. In order to get this in requisites of the concerned research work, wavelet transforms is applied. Wavelet transform and Un-decimated Discrete wavelet transform. DWT can also be added. This can be done in order to discover more possible combinations that may lead to the finest denoising technique. In this review paper we have tried to review the maximum aspects regarding to image denoising.

Keywords- Image Denoising, Image Filtering, Wavelet Transform and Wavelet Thresholding.

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Intrusion Detection System in MANETS: A Survey

Authors: I. Meenatchi, K. Palanivel

Abstract — A mobile ad hoc network is an infrastructure less network which is prone to various malicious attacks when incorporated in applications. It is a dreadful task for attaining security to the greatest degree in MANET. This is awaited to the diverse characteristics of mobile ad hoc networks which unlike from well-established infrastructure network. In order to overcome this security challenges the Intrusion detection systems have been deployed in the ad hoc network. In this paper we focus on surveying heterogeneous intrusion detection systems used in MANET for defending various attacks.

Keywords— Mobile Ad hoc Network; IDS; Routing protocols; Attacks

[1] Christofis’s Panos1, Christos Xenakis2, Giannis Stavrakakis1,2010 A novel intrusion detection system for MANETS International Conference on Security and Cryptography

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[6] A.Nadeem and M.Howarth, 2008,―Adaptive intrusion detection and prevention of Denial of Service attacks in MANETs‖,Proceeding of ACM 5th International Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing Conference

[7] R. H. Akbani, S. Patel and D. C. Jinwala, 2012, DoS attacks in mobile ad hoc networks: A survey, in Proc. 2nd Int. Meeting ACCT.

[8] M.Pirrete and R.Brooks, 2006, ―The Sleep Deprivation Attack in Sensor Networks: Analysis and Methods of Defense‖, International Journal of Distributed Sensor networks.

[9] Garuba, M., Liu, C. & Fraites, D., 2008, Intrusion Techniques: Comparative Study of Network Intrusion Detection Systems. In Proceeding of Fifth International Conference on Information Technology: New Generation, IEEE.

[10] M. Abolhasan, T. Wysocki, and E. Dutkiewicz,2004, ―A review of routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks,‖ Elsevier Journal of Ad Hoc Networks, 1–22.

[11] A. Nadeem, M. Howarth, 2014, An intrusion detection & adaptive response mechanism for MANETs, Elsevier Journal of Ad Hoc Networks, 368-380

[12] M. Mohanapriya, Ilango Krishnamurthy, ―Modified DSR Protocol for Detection and Removal of Selective Black Hole Attack in MANET‖, Computers and Electrical Engineering, Elsevier science, 2013

[13] Nadeem, A., & Howarth, M. (2009). A generalized intrusion detection & prevention mechanism for securing MANETs. In Proceedings of IEEE international conference on ultra modern telecommunications & workshops, St. Petersburg, Russia.

[14] A. Nadeem, M. Howarth, 2013, A. Nadeem, M. Howarth, Protection of MANETs from a range of attacks using an intrusion detection and prevention system, Telecommunications Systems Journal Springer

[15] Ming-Yang Su , Kun-Lin Chiang,2010,Prevention of Wormhole Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks by Intrusion Detection Nodes, volume 6221 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, page 253-260. Springer

[16] Elhadi, M. Shakshuki., Nan Kang, Tarek R. Sheltami,2013, “Eaack—a secure intrusion-detection system for manets”.ieee transactions on industrial electronics, vol. 60, no. 3 march 2013 1089.

[17] H.C. Jang, Y.N. Lien, T.C. Tsai, Rescue information system for earthquake disasters based on manet emergency communication platform, in: Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing: Connecting the World Wirelessly, ACM, 2009, pp. 623–627


Geotechnical Investigations of Borrow Area for the construction of Earth and Rockfill Dam – A Case Study

Authors: Sarma, C. B, Rajesh Khanna, Dr. Chitra, R

Abstract-- Due to easy availability of construction material and ability of the material adjust itself in seismic prone area, Earth and Rockfill dams are now more popular. There is a proposal of 960 MW, 52 m High Indira Sagar Dam Project, Polavaram, Andhra Pradesh central core Earth and Rockfill dam. Geotechnical Investigations (Field and Laboratory) were carried out in one of the borrow area. Borrow area samples for the construction of core material from Spills Channel, Approach Channel and Pilot Channel. This study shows that strength parameters and consolidation characteristics for clay with high plasticity and under loading conditions retains pore water pressure on saturation, therefore there is a significant difference between Total and Effective shear parameters and also possesses medium to high compressibility characteristics. The idea of presenting this paper is to show that high plastic clays could cause settlement and the relationship with strength parameters indicates significant variation in Total and Effective strength parameters for the construction of Earth and Rockfill dam.

Keywords-- Atterberg Limit, Standard Proctor Compaction, Specific gravity, pore water pressure, cohesion, shear strength, compressibility.

[1] CSMRS report no: 4/Soil-IV/CSMRS/E/12/2011 “Report on Geotechnical Investigations on Soil samples collected from borrow area 1 for the proposed Indira Sagar Polavaram project, Dowleiswaram, Andhra Pradesh.

[2] Gulati, S.K., and Datta, M. (2005). “Geotechnical Engineering.” Tata McGraw- Hill, New Delhi.

[3] IS 2720 (Part 14) – 1983 (2006). “Method of test of soils: Determination of shear strength parameters of soil from consolidated undrained triaxial compression test with measurement of pore water pressure.” Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.

[4] IS 2720 (Part 17) – 1986. “Method of test of soils: laboratory determination of permeability.” Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.

[5] Lambe, T.W., and Whitman, R.V. (2000). “Soil Mechanics” John Wiley and Sons, New York. [6] Singh, B., and Sharma, H.D. (2004) “Earth and rockfill dams.” Sarita Parkashan, Meerut


On Design of SDM Model of an ERP Implementation for MCD

Authors: Dr. Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Vilender Kumar

Abstract--MCD is a large service provider organization and providing large services and functionalities but still struggling to give real benefits to citizens. ERP is a complex piece of software and provides real-time operational capabilities and therefore successful implementation of ERP systems in MCD is a demanding assignment to promote public services and citizen centric administration. The objective of this paper is to consider CSF and design a SDM model of an ERP implementation for MCD. This will act as a reference model to help and avoid previous mistakes, and minimize the ERP failure risks associated with MCD for successful ERP implementation.

Keywords-- ERP implementation, Critical success factors (CSF’s), Information sharing, Database, Software Development Model (SDM)

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[3] Brehm L and Markus M L (2000), The Divided Software Life Cycle of ERP Packages, available at : Proceedings of the 1st Global Information Technology Management (GITM) World Conference, Memphis (Tennessee, USA), June 11- 13 2000, pp. 43-46.

[4] Chan S (1999), Architecture Choices for ERP Systems, Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS) available at : http://aisel.aisnet.org/amcis1999/75.

[5] Carl Marnewick and Lessing Labuschagne, A conceptual model for enterprise resource planning (ERP) Available at www.kitkanpur.com/colleges /notes/erp_conceptual _model.pdf

[6] Dorsey P (2005), Top 10 Reasons Why Systems Projects Fail , available at: http:// www .hks. harvard. edu/mrcbg/ethiopia/Publications/Top%2010%20Reasons%20 Why%20 Systems% 20Projects%20Fail.pdf.

[7] Gani ( , Comparison between S P et eaver . and racle Fusion iddleware g available at www.civimi.com docs user project final. pdf .

[8] Gupta Sanjay Kumar, Kumar Vilender, Chhabra Susheel (2012), A Window View on Prospects of ERP Implementation in Municipal Corporation of Delhi, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.ijetae.com, Volume 2, Issue 9, September 2012, pp.252-260

[9] Gupta Sanjay Kumar, Kumar Vilender (2014), A Study on MCD Officials Perception Towards Present Information Sharing Potential in MCD, Delhi, International Journal of Engineering Technology and advanced Engineering (IJETAE), Vol. 4, Issue 6, June 2014, pp.730-735.

[10] Gupta Sanjay Kumar, Kumar Vilender (2014), Database Integration and Quality Services of MCD: A Study Based on MCD Officials Perception, International Journal of Recent Development in Engineering and Technology Website: www.ijrdet.com, Vol. 2, Issue 6, June 2014, pp.27-30.

[11] Kuo-En Fu (2010) , Development of a Generic Procedure Model for the Enterprise Resource Planning Implementation in Small and Medium Enterprises(2010), available at :SICE Annual Conference 2010August 18-21, 2010, The Grand Hotel, Taipei, Taiwan.

[12] Merhi M.I. (2010), Factors Leading to Successful ERP Implementation: An Integrated Framework Available at www.swdsi.org/swdsi2010/SW2010_Preceedings/ papers/PA147 .pdf

[13] Nah F Fui Hoo, Zuckweiler Kathryn M and Lau J Lee Shang (2003), ERP Implementation: Chief Information Officers Perceptions of Critical Success Factors, available at: Denver, Coninternational Journal of Human-Computer Interaction , 16(1), pp.5–22.

[14] Park Jae-won and Lee Nam-Yong (2006), A Conceptual Model of ERP for Small and Medium- Size Companies based on UML IJCSNS, Journal of Computer Science, Vol.6, No.5A, May2006 Available at http://www.google.co.in/#hl=en&biw= 1003&bih=567&q=ERP+ model& aq= f &aq i=&aql= &oq=&gs_rfai=&fp=9b3caf67a38e6279.

[15] Perera H.S.C. and Costa W.K.R (2008), Analytic Hierarchy Process for Selection of ERP Software for Manufacturing Companies, available at: VISION—The Journal of Business Perspective Vol. 12, No. 4, October–December 2008.

[16] Prakash N and Gulla U (2008), Adoption of Enterprise Applications Towards E-Government–A Select Case Study of Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai(2008), availableat:http://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?q=Adoption+of+Enter prise+Applications+Towards+EGovernment+%E2%80%93+A+Sele ct+Case+Study+of+Municipal+Corporation+of+Greater+ Mumbai&btnG=&hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5.

[17] Ragowsky A, Somers Toni M and Adams Dennis A (2005), Assessing The Value Provided By ERP Applications Through Organizational Activities , available at: Communications of Association of Information Systems (AIS), 2005, Vol. 2005 Issue 16, pp.381-406.

[18] Scheer August W and Habermann F (2000), Making ERP a Success, using business process models to achieve positive result, available at: Communications Of the ACM ,Vol.43 ,No. 4, April 2000.

[19] Sedera D, Guy G and Taizan C (2003) , Knowledge Management for ERP Success, Asia Conference on Information Systems, available at :http //aisel.aisnet.org/pacis2003/97.

[20] Stephan A. Kronbichler, Herwig Ostermann et.al.(2010), A comparison of ERP-success measurement approaches, Journal of Information Systems and Technology Management, Vol. 7, No.2, 2010, p.281-310.

[21] Teltumbde A (2000), A framework for evaluating ERP projects, available at: INT. J. PROD. RES., 2000, VOL. 38, NO. 17, pp.4507- 4520.


Diffusional transport of chloride and phosphate in soils of the North Central Region of Córdoba (Argentina)

Authors: Rollán, Adriana Ana del Carmen, Bachmeier, Omar Antonio

Abstract— The kinetics and energy changes of chloride and phosphate adsorption in soils can be determined using mixed bed ion-exchange resin. Attending on this need, this work purpose was to determine the coefficients of diffusion of phosphate and chloride in soils of the North Central Region of Córdoba (Argentina). With disturbed samples were prepared soil columns with moisture at saturation, assessing the transport of phosphate and chloride. The average diffusion coefficients for phosphate ranged from 2.59 ×10 -8 cm2 s -1 and 9.59 × 10-8 cm2 s -1 and the average for chloride was 4.20 × 10-6 cm2 s -1 (±5×10-8 ). Phosphate ion has strong restrictions to diffusional movement, given its intense interaction with the solid matrix while chloride suffers only restrictions associated with the physical environment available to transport. From there, the grade of interaction of the species in diffusion with the solid phase of the soil, determines its pollutant potential and the importance of the form in which the spatial distribution of the fertilizers is done.

Keywords— Chloride adsorption, phosphate adsorption, diffusion coefficients, soils fertility, ion transport.

[1] Seuntjens, P., Tirez, K., Simůnek, J. van Genuchten, MTh, Cornelis C. and Geuzens P. 2001. Aging effects on cadmium transport in undisturbed contaminated sandy soil columns. J. Environ. Qual. 30:1040-1050.

[2] Reginato, JC, Palumbo, MC, Moreno, IS, Bernardo, ICh and Tarzia DA. 2000. Modeling nutrient uptake using a moving boundary approach. Comparison with the Barber-Cushman model. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 64:1363-1367.

[3] Dyck, MF, Kachanoski, RG and de Jong, E.2003. Long-term Movement of a Chloride Tracer under Transient, Semi-Arid Conditions Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J.67:471–477.

[4] Bachmeier, O. 2011 Transporte de Nutrientes por Difusión. El Caso de los Suelos de la Región Central de Argentina. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Saarbrücken, Alemania.

[5] Soil Survey Staff, 2010. Keys to Soil Taxonomy, 11th Ed. USDANatural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, DC.

[6] Nelson, DW and Sommers, LE.1996. Total carbon, orga nic carbon, and organic matter. In: Sparks D.L. (Ed.): Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3. ASA, SSSA, Madison WI.

[7] Kuo S. 1996. Phosphorus. In: DL Sparks (Editor), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3. ASA, SSSA, CSSA, Madison WI. [8] Crank, J. 1975. The mathematics of diffusion. 2nd Edition. Oxford Univ. Press, New York.

[9] Bhadoria, P., Kaselowsky, J., Claassen, N. and , Jungk, A. 1991. Soil phosphate diffusion coefficients: their dependence on phosphorus concentration and buffer power. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 55:56-60.

[10] Jungk A, Claassen N. 1997. Ion diffusion in the soil-root system. Adv. Agron. 61:53-108.

[11] Cox, JW, Kirkby, CA, Chittleborough, DJ, Smythe LJ, and Fleming NK. 2000. Mobility of phosphorus through intact soil cores collected from the Adelaide Hills, South Australia. Aust. J. Soil Res. 38(5):973-990.

[12] Stites, W. and Kraft GI. 2001. Nitrate and chloride loading to groundwater from an irrigated north-central U.S. sand-plain vegetable field. J. Environ. Qual. 30:1176-1184.


Efficient Cooperative Relay Network using Different Relay Selection with MRC and ML Detection

Authors: Ashish Tirkey, Prof. Neeraj Tiwari

Abstract - The cooperative relay network is the integrated part of the long distance communication system and the better performance of it makes communication reliable as well as improve quality of service better. In this paper we have simulated the cooperative relay network with four different relay selection modes having harmonic and maximum values of SNR. The proposed approach contains the combining techniques employed at the receiver to combine various signals received from different channels like SD, SR and RD. The combining techniques referred here is C-MRC and SC with different relay modes AF(Amplify and Forward) and DF(Detect and Forward). The system is followed by detection techniques, maximum likelihood(ML), MMSE and ZF to reduce the bit error rate(BER).

Keywords - Relay Selection, AF, DF, C-MRC, SC, MMSE, ZF and ML.

[1] K. K. Wong, and E. Elsheikh, “Optimized Cooperative Diversity for a Three-node Decode-and-Forward Relay Channels”, IEEE 2nd International Symposium on Wireless Pervasive Computing: 5-7, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Piscataway, US, pp.296-301, February 2007.

[2] J. N. Laneman, and G.W. Wornell, “Energy-efficient Antenna Sharing and Relaying for Wireless Networks”, IEEE Proceedings on Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, Vol.1, pp. 7–12, 2000.

[3] A. Sendonaris, E. Erkip and B. Aazhang, “User Cooperation Diversity–Part I: System Description”, IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 51, No. 11, pp 1927-1938, November 2003.

[4] A. Sendonaris, E. Erkip and B. Aazhang, “User Cooperation Diversity–Part II: Implementation Aspects and Performance Analysis”, IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 51, No.11, pp 1939-1948, November 2003.

[5] J. N. Laneman, D. N. C. Tse, and G. W. Wornell, “Cooperative Diversity in Wireless Networks: Efficient Protocols and Outage Behaviour”, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol.50, pp.3062–3080, December 2004.

[6] T. M. Cover and A. A. El Gamal, “Capacity Theorems for the Relay Channel”, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. IT-25, pp. 572–584, September 1979.

[7] A. Sendonaris, E. Erkip, and B. Aazhang, “Increasing Uplink Capacity via User Cooperation Diversity,” In Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, pp. 156, August 1998.

[8] Yang, Weiwei; Liu, Xiaoning; Cai, Yueming; Wang, Lei, "On the performance of decode-and-forward relay networks using imperfect MRC receiver," Wireless Mobile and Computing (CCWMC 2009), IET International Communication Conference on , vol., no., pp.323,326, 7-9 Dec. 2009

[9] Butcharoen, S.; Pirak, C., "C-MRC-based path selection approach for cooperative multihop communications," Electrical Engineering/Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications and Information Technology (ECTI-CON), 2012 9th International Conference on , vol., no., pp.1,4, 16-18 May 2012

[10] Zhou, Q.F.; Lau, F.C.M., "Performance Bounds of Opportunistic Cooperative Communications With CSI-Assisted Amplify-andForward Relaying and MRC Reception," Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on , vol.59, no.5, pp.2159,2165, Jun 2010

[11] Kai Yan; Jian Jiang; Ying Guan Wang; Hai Tao Liu, "Outage Probability of Selection Cooperation With MRC in NakagamiFading Channels," Signal Processing Letters, IEEE , vol.16, no.12, pp.1031,1034, Dec. 2009


Classification of Hyperspectral Satellite Images Using Ensemble Techniques for Object Recognition

Authors: K. M. Sharavana Raju, V. Karthikeyani

Abstract-- Image classification is one of the most important tasks of remote sensing information processing used for object recognition. In this paper, a novel scheme is proposed to improve the accuracy of hyperspectral image classification by amalgamating multiple feature vector sets and ensemble methods with different classifiers. Extracting the texture, color and object features of the satellite images, an ensemble classifier is built for object recognition which recognizes the type of objects present in it. Effective use of feature set and the selection of suitable classification methods with different combination methods are applied for improving classification accuracy. Classifiers such as Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP), k-Nearest Neighbour (KNN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) are used. This combination shows high performance in terms of Classifier Accuracy (CA), Object Recognition Rate (ORR) and False Alarm Rate (FAR). Results obtained from the ensembling classification give better solution when compared with single classification system.

Keywords-- Hyperspectral satellite images; ensemble classification; Object Recognition Rate, False Alarm Rate, Classifier Accuracy.

[1] Shwetank, Jain Kamal & BhatiaK .J, “ Review of Crop Identification and Classification using Hyperspectral Image Processing System”, International Journal of Computer Science and Communication, Vol.1, No.1, Pp.253-258, 2002.

[2] Bruzzone, L., Conese, C., Maselli, F., & Roli, F. “Multisource classification of complex rural areas by statistical and neuralnetwork approaches”, Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, Vol. 63, No.5, Pp. 523–533, 1997.

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[4] Kahya, O., Bayram, B., & Reis, S. “Land cover classification with an expert system approach using Landsat ETM imagery: a case study of Trabzon”, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 160, No.1, Pp. 431–438, 2010.

[5] Qu, J. S., Qu, S. B., & Wang, Z. J. “Feature-based fuzzy neural network approach for target classification and recognition in remote sensing images”, Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 13, No. 1, Pp. 68–74, 2009.

[6] Lu, D., & Weng, Q. “A survey of image classification methods and techniques for improving classification performance”, International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 28, No. 5, Pp. 823–870, 2007.

[7] Zhang, J. X. “Multi-source remote sensing data fusion: status and trends”, International Journal of Image and Data Fusion, Vol. 1, No. 1, Pp. 5–24, 2010

[8] Chen, D., & Stow, D. A. “The effect of training strategies on supervised classification at different spatial resolution”, Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, Vol. 68, Pp. 1155–1162, 2002.

[9] Gislason, P. O., Benediktsson, J. A., & Sveinsson, J. R., “Random forest for land cover classification”, Pattern Recognition Letters, Vol. 27, Pp. 294–300, 2006.

[10] Chen, S. J., Shan, D. D., & Zhao,W. C. “Comparison and analyses on land cover classification methods using remote sensing data”, Journal of Liaoning Technical University (Natural Science), Vol. 29, No. 4, Pp. 567–570, 2008.

[11] L. Breiman, “ Bagging predictors”, Machine Learning, Vol. 24, No. 2, 1996, pp.123-140.

[12] L. Kuncheva, and C. Whitaker, “ Measures of diversity in classifier ensembles and their relationship with the ensemble accuracy”, Machine Learning, Vol. 51, No. 2, Pp.181-207, 2003.

[13] B. M. Steele, “Combining multiple classifiers: An application using spatial and remotely sensed information for land cover type mapping,” Remote Sensing Environ., Vol. 74, No. 3, Pp. 545– 556, 2000.


Optimization of Nutrient Supplement In Hydrocarbon Bioremediation Process with Biostimulation Techniques in Coastal Regions

Authors: Munawar, Mukhtasor, Mahmud Mustain, Purnomo Edi Sasongko, dan Zaenal Kusuma

Abstract— Bioremediation is the application of the principles of biological processes to cultivate the land, and clay which are contaminated by dangerous chemicals. By adding nutrient, it is known as biostimulation. Biostimulation needs nutrient addition to stimulate microbial growth. Bioremediation's success often measured by contaminants concentration reduction percentages in soil or ground water. From this results, the additional nutrient's optimum value obtained with a ratio of N: P at 107.63: 1, with the amount of nutrients (% P) of 8.471 and a decrease in oil concentration coefficient (k) 0,033 / day. Meanwhile, in the experiment with additional nutrients as much as 8.47% P at a ratio of N: P = 105.5: 1, while the percentage of bioremediation obtained approximately 88.47%. The output value of the regression analysis of R-Sq (adj) = 82.2%, this indicates that the expected response of high significance. The research was conducted in the pond area of District Kalang Anyar Sedati Sidoarjo, implemented from May to August 2014 [11].

Keywords— optimization, nutrient, bioremediation, hydrocarbon, biostimulation.

[1] Zuidam, V., 1986. Interpretation in Terrain Analysis in Geomorphologic Mapping, Smith Publisher, The Hague Netherland

[2] Venosa A.D., Zhu, X., 2003. Biodegradation of Crude Oil Contaminating Marine Shorelines and Freshwater wetlands. Spill Science & Technology Bulletin, 8(2): 163–178

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[7] Ian M. Head , Richard P. J. Swannell, 1999. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminants in Marine Habitats, Marine Pollution Bulletin Vol. 40 pp 135

[8] Delille, B Pelletier, E., Delille, D., 2004. Crude Oil Bioremediation in Sub-Antarctic Intertidal Sediments: Chemistry and Toxicity of Oiled Residues. Marine Environmental Research 57, pp. 311-327.

[9] Eweis,J.B. et. al., 1998. Bioremidiation Principles,New York:Mc Graw-Hill,Inc

[10] Cookson, John T., Jr., 1995. Bioremediation Engineering Design and Application. McGrasw-Hill

[11] BMG, 2014. Badan Meteorologi dan Geofisika Stasiun Meteorologi Maritim, Perak Surabaya.


Characterization and Investigation of Tensile Test on Sisal Fiber Reinforced Polyster Composite Material

Authors: Kotresh sardar, Dr. K. Veeresh, Dr. T. Rangaswamy, Nandini V R

Abstract--The use of natural fiber reinforced polyster composites play a prominent role in almost every application in our daily life due to their high strength and stiffness. The natural fibers serve as reinforcement; it not only improves the strength and stiffness but also reduces the weight of resulting bio-composite. In this present work investigations were carried out to know the performance and properties like tensile strength of 15%,25%,35% and45% SFRPC material with low cost, lightweight and apparently environmentally superior. this paper shows the developments of natural fiber composites used in medical implants for human tissue such as femur bone .the specimens are prepared according to ASTM D-3039 for tensile test using polyster resin as the matrix material, the material consisting of 15%, 25%, 35% and 45% of SFRPC material with fiber weight fraction, random continuous long fiber orientation and the specimens are prepared by using hand lay up fabrication technique. The tensile tests are conducted by varying the proportions of standard specimens. the human femur bone tensile strength in males is 39.74±4.80 N/mm2 and in female it is 30.08±7.96 N/mm2 . Hence according to the results it is observed that there is an improvement in tensile properties of 15%, 25%, 35% and 45% SFRPC material. It is found that the 45% SFRPC material tensile strength may be suitable for the replacement of human tissues and it is observed that by increasing the percentage of fiber, the tensile strength of the specimen may increase. This results suggest that SFRPC material is low-cost, low density with high specific properties and high strength biocompatible material and may suggest for implant as for femur bone. By the experimental results, the 15%, 25%, 35% and 45% SFRPC materials will match for the tensile strength. In this connection, finally 45% SFRPC material can be suggested for femur bone Tensile strength. Hence further the work can be continued to test remaining mechanical properties.

Keywords-- sisal fiber reinforced polyester composite materials (SFRPC), femur bone, tensile test, hand layup technique.

[1] A.N. Netravali and S. Chabba, paper entitled Composites get greener, Materials Today 6, 22-29 (2003)

[2] Belmares H, Barrera A, Monjaras M. New composite materials from natural hard fibres. Part 2: Fatigue studies and a novel fatigue degradation model. Ind Eng Chem Prod Res De 1983; 22:643–52

[3] Joseph S, Sreekala M. S, Oommen Z, Koshy P, and Thomas S, “A Comparison of the Mechanical Properties of Phenol Formaldehyde Composites Reinforced with Banana Fibers and Glass Fibers”, Composites Science and Technology, 62(14), 2002, pp. 1857-1868.

[4] George J, Sreekala M. S and Thomas S, “A review on interface modification and characterization of natural fiber reinforced plastic composites”, Polymer Engineering and Science, 41(9), 2001,

[5] John, K. (2003). Solution Blends and Sisal/Glass Hybrid Composites of Unsaturated Polyester Resin, PhD Thesis, Department of Polymer Science & Technology, Sri Krishna Devaraya University, India


Android App Design of Static and Dynamic Visual-Aids for House Selling Service Using App Inventor 2

Authors: Huang Li-Jeng, Liao Wan-Ling, Ha Thi Thuy-Van

Abstract— House selling service is an important task for architectural company or personal house sellers. App Inventor is a no-code open platform for Android mobile app development using drag-and-drop approach and visual programming environment. This paper is aimed at Android programming using App Inventor for professional application, i.e., static and dynamic visual aids for house selling service (HSS). System development procedures, layout design and program coding will be explained. A typical real house selling in Ping-tung, Taiwan will be employed to show the results of pictures and movies visual-aids for house selling service. The results are satisfactory and convenient for the use of house sellers.

Keywords—Android Apps, App Inventor, House Selling Service, Smart Phones, Static and Dynamic Expression.

[1] Windermere Services Company. 2008. Windermere Real Estate: Guide to Selling a House

[2] Mann, D., O Cathain,, C. 2001. 40 Inventive (Architecture) Principles with Examples. The TRIZ J.

[3] Gennady, R. 2005. 40 Inventive Principles in Marketing, Sales and Advertising.

[4] Dwyer, F. R., Schurr, P. H. and Oh, S. 1987. Developing BuyerSeller Relationships. J. Marketing, 51, 11-27.

[5] Atul, P. and Jagdish, N. S. 2001. Customer Relationship Management: Emerging Practice, Process, and Discipline. J. Eco .and Soc. Res., 3(2), 1-34.

[6] Jean-Michel, M. and Ganael B. 2009. Efects of Sales Force Automation Use on Sale Force Activities and Customer Relationship Management Process. J. Person. Sell. & Sales Mana., 28(2), 167-184.

[7] Consumer Affairs Victoria. 2008. Real estate: A Guide for Buyers and Sellers.

[8] Tyler, J. 2011. App Inventor for Android. Baker & Tayl, 2011.

[9] Wolber, D., Abelson, H., Spertus, E., andLooney, L. 2011. App Inventor. O’Reilly Media.

[10] Kloss-Jorg, H. 2013. Android Apps with App Inventor:The Fast and Easy Way to Build Android Apps. Addison-Wesley, 2013.

[11] Lakshmi, P., Jeffery H., and Alex W. 2014. Android App Inventor for the Absolute Beginner. Cengage Learning PTR, Boston, USA.

[12] Huang, L. J. 2014. Object-Oriented Programming for Android Using App Inventor. Note for Lecture, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Science, Taiwan, R. O. C. (in Chinese)

[13] Wikipedia. 2014. App Inventor for Android. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google_App_Inventor.

[14] Wolber, D. 2011. App Inventor and Real-World Motivation. Proc. 42th ACM Tech. Symp. Comp. Sci. Edu. (SIGCSE ’11), ACM, NY, 601-606.

[15] Hsu, Y. C., Rice, K., and Dawley, L. 2012. Empowering Educators with Google’s Android App Inventor: An Online Workshop in Mobile App Design. British J. Educa. Tech. 43(1), E1-E5.

[16] Arachchilage, N. A. G., Love, S.and Scott, M. 2012. Designing a Mobile Game to Teach Conceptual Knowledge of Avoiding “Phishing Attacks”, Int. J. e-Learning Secur., 2(2), 127-132.

[17] William, L. H. 2013. Teaching and Assessing Programming Fundamentals for Non Majors with Visual Programming. Proc. 18th ACM Conf. Inno. Tech. Compu. Sci. Edu. (ITiCSE ’13), ACM, NY, USA.

[18] Zhang, C. 2014. Healthcare Mobile App Development with App Inventor in a Health IT Course. Proc. South. Asso. Inform. Sys. Conf., Macon, GA, USA, March 21-22, 2014.


Energy Audit-A Case Study

Authors: Ankur Soni, Mukesh Pandey, Anurag Gour

Abstract -Energy audit is a process of checking the way energy is used and identify areas where wastage can be minimize if not totally eradicate. Energy audit consists of several tasks which can be carried out depending on the type of audit and the function of audited facility. It started with review the historical data of energy consumption which can be compiled from the electricity bills. These data is important in order to understand the patterns of energy used and their trend. After obtaining the information on energyconsumption, the next step is to set up an energy audit program. This program shou ld start with site survey in order to obtain information on present energy used.The energy utilization such as running hours of air-conditioning, lighting levels, locations of unnecessary air-conditioning and lighting due to unoccupied areas, temperature and humidity, chillers/pump scheduling and setting, efficiencies of equipment’s and machine and the areas of high energy consumption and the possibility to reduce consumption should be record for further analysis.The energy audit discussed in this paper will only focused in the RGPV library building and university of teaching department. It is carried out in aim of analysing and identifying possible energy saving measures in the library, which can later be implem ented for energy efficiency program in RGPV. Keywords – Energy Audit, Methods of auditing, Data collection, Recommendations, Payback period

[1] Zhang Jian, Zhang Yuchen, Chen Song, Gong Suzhou; “How to Reduce Energy Consumption by Energy Audits and Energy Management” Issue Date: July31 2011- Aug.2011 on page(s): 1 - 5 Date of Current Version: 12 September 2011.

[2] Barney L Capehar and Mark B. Spillter “Energy Auditing”,

[3] www.bee-india.nic.in

[4] http://www.energymanagertraining.com/audit_guide/energy%20a udit%20methodology.pdf

[5] Eartheasy.com/live_led_bulbs_comparision


Application of Ultra Compact Element Analyzer for Soil Fertility Diagnosis of Agricultural Research in Southeast Asia

Authors: Keiichi Hayashi, Shuji Tatsumi, Ruth Agbisit, Satoshi Nakamura, Osamu Ito

Abstract— Soil analysis is quite an expensive option and thus it is not feasible for individual farmers, especially small farmers in Southeast Asia although it is imperative for appropriate soil fertility management in agriculture. Recently, Micro Emission Ltd. has developed a liquid electrode plasma method (LEP) and has successfully invented an ultra compact element analyzer or MH-5000. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of MH-5000 in agricultural science by comparing it with the conventional ICP-AES method. Twenty soil samples from the Philippines, Lao PDR and Indonesia were measured by MH-5000 and ICP-AES to evaluate the performance of MH-5000. Results showed that a discrepancy was observed between the measured data by MH-5000 and the ICPAES despite good fit by modified correlation coefficient (R2 ). A compensate formula obtained through this correlation was able to revise the data by MH-5000 and this proved the adequate performance of the MH-5000 in designated analyses.

Keywords—agricultural R&D, portable apparatus, Southeast Asia

[1] Buol, SW., Southard, RJ.,Graham, RC., and McDaniel, PA. 2003. Soil Genesis and Classification, 5th edition. Wiley-Blackwell.

[2] Iiduka, A., Morita, Y., Tamiya, E., and Takamura, Y. 2004. Optical emission spectrometer of aqueous solution samples employing liquid electrode plasma. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences.

[3] Kitano, K., Iiduka, A., Yamamoto, T., Ukita, Y., Tamiya, E., and Takamura, Y. 2011. Highly sensitive elemental analysis for Cd and Pb by liquid electrode plasma atomic emission spectrometry with quartz glass chip and sample flow. Anal. Chem. 83, 9424-9430.

[4] USDA. 2004 Soil Survey Laboratory Methods Manual. Version 4.

[5] Yamamoto, T. and Takamura, Y. 2009. Development of ultra compact elemental analyzer. Bunseki 1, 32-36..

[6] Yamamoto, T., Kurotani, I., Yamashita, A., Kawai, J., and Imai, S. 2010. Elemental analysis of leaching solution from soils in the mountain district of Shikoku with a handy-type liquid electrode plasma atomic emission spectrometer. Bunseki Kagaku, 59 (12), 1125-1131.


An Extensive Review on Cooperative Wireless Mobile Networks

Authors: Intzar Ansari, Hemant Soni

Abstract- Most of the present researches on cooperative network in which the user nodes are equipped with a single antenna or multiple, there have been some new results which exploit the benefits of multiple antenna deployment. Cooperative MIMO technology allows a wireless network system to attain better performance gains than provided by either usual MIMO or cooperative systems. It promised significant improvement in spectral efficiency and network coverage phenomena for different next generation wireless communication systems. In wireless communication, the path towards the various techniques that gives high service quality and data rate has been through the use of the cooperative network provided by the rich scattering wireless channels. Due to their great aspects, MIMO and cooperative systems have found their way into several standards for future wireless communication systems, especially in cellular networks and wireless local area networks (LAN) in this review article we are presenting the comparative analysis.

Keywords-- Cooperative Diversity, MIMO, WiMAX, SER, Complexity.

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[2] D.N.Mitiku,"Cooperative Communication Techniques In Wireless Networks.", MSc. Thesis: Blekinge Institute of Technology, 2010. [37] V. Jaiswal, "PERFORMANCE OF SWITCHED RELAY DIVERSITY SYSTEMS IN WIRELESS FADING CHANNELS."Msc. Thesis, 2010.

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[5] Kanghee Lee; Kwon, H.M.; Ibdah, Y.; Wenhao Xiong; Sawan, E.M., "Mobile Relay Amplifying Matrix Design of the Cooperative Distributed MMSE Relaying for AF Wireless Mobile Networks," Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), 2012 IEEE 75th , vol., no., pp.1,5, 6-9 May 2012.

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[7] Yu-Chung Chen; Chun-Ting Chou; Chun-Yu Chen, "Cooperative localization for wireless and mobile social networking service (SNS)," Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC), 2011 7th International , vol., no., pp.1952,1957, 4-8 July 2011.

[8] Changiz, R.; Halabian, H.; Yu, F.R.; Lambadaris, I.; Tang, H., "Trust Management in Wireless Mobile Networks with Cooperative Communications," Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing (EUC), 2010 IEEE/IFIP 8th International Conference on , vol., no., pp.498,503, 11-13 Dec. 2010.

[9] Singh, C.P.; Garg, P., "Cooperative diversity in wireless networks based on best relay selection:4th G mobile communication," Internet, 2008. ICI 2008. 4th IEEE/IFIP International Conference on , vol., no., pp.1,5, 23-25 Sept. 2008.

[10] A. Meier, "Cooperative diversity in wireless networks," MSc. Thesis: University of Edinburgh, 2005.

[11] A. M. Elshokry, "Complexity and Performance Evaluation of Detection Schemes for Spatial Multiplexing MIMO Systems," Msc. Thesis: Islamic University Gaza, January 2010.

[12] A. A. Zelst, "MIMO OFDM for wireless LANs," PhD Dissertation: Eindhoven university, 2004.

[13] K. J. R. Liu, A. K. Sadek, W. Su, and A. Kwasinski, Cooperative communications and networking: Cambridge Press, 2009.

[14] Robert C. Daniels “Machine Learning for Link Adaptation in Wireless Networks” PhD Dissertation, the University of Texas at Austin, 2011.

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[19] W. Lin, G. Wu, L. Zhang, and S. Li, "Performance analysis of cooperative networks with random decode-and-forward relaying," 2008.

[20] D. B. Da Costa, "Performance of cooperative diversity networks: Analysis of amplify-and-forward relaying under equal-gain and maximal-ratio combining," 2009.


Analysis of CH4 - C4H10 Cryogenic Treated Tungsten Carbide Insert

Authors: C. Rameshkannan, P. Padmanabhan, G. Rajkumar

Abstract— Deep Cryogenic Treatment was confirmed to be crucial in order to maximize the hardness of the tool to reduce the tool wear and economic considerations which affects the production. Because of its high precision and high reliability tungsten carbide inserts have been broadly used worldwide for significant productivity improvements. Liquid nitrogen, oxygen are commonly used cryogenic treatment. The aim of this research is to examine the effect of cryogenic treatment of the uncoated carbide inserts with mixture of methane (CH4) and butane (C4H10) gases and observed with varying temperatures of -130°C, -150°C, -170°C. In general, machining with carbide tool is characterized by steady state conditions. Except at the beginning and end of the cut, the forces on the cutting tool and the tool tip temperature are essentially constant. For the special case varying cutting speed will affect the tool tip temperature. Where during machining, the carbide tool should provide reliable performance only with the parameters of higher hardness, bending strength, resistance to crater wearing and oxidation. Thus, it is necessary to provide high quality carbide turning inserts with excellent cutting capability. The specimens from both cryogenically treated and untreated conditions were subjected Rockwell Hardness Test and Metallurgical Analysis to obtain results that the cryogenic treatment has improved the hardness and strength.The experimental result was compared with Ansys. Keywords— cryo treatment, uncoated carbide tool, hardness test,finite element analysis.

[1] D. Candane1, N. Alagumurthi, K. Palaniradja, Effect of cryogenic treatment on microstructure and wear characteristics of AISI M35 HSS, International Journal of Materials Science and Applications 2013; 2(2) : 56-65.

[2] S. Sendooran, P.Raja, Metallurgical Investigation On Cryogenic Treated Hss Tool, ISSN: 0975-5462 Vol. 3 No. 5 May 2011

[3] MohdTouseefNauman, S. RasoolMohideen&NasreenKaleem, Material Characterization of 316L Stainless Steel After Being Subjected To Cryogenic Treatment, International Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (IJMIE), ISSN No. 2231 – 6477, Vol-2, Issue-1, 2012

[4] B.R. Ramji,Analysis Of Forces, Roughness, Wear And Temperature In Turning Cast Iron Using Cryotreated Carbide Inserts, International Journal of Engineering Science and TechnologyVol. 2(7), 2010, 2521-2529

[5] A.A. Khan, M.Y. Ali and M.M. Haque, A New Approach Of Applying Cryogenic Coolant In Turning Aisi 304 Stainless SteelInternational Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering (IJMME), Vol.5 (2010), No.2, 171-174.

[6] AejazMasood, MujibUllahZuberi&Ekram Husain, Estimation of Breakdown Strength of Solid Insulating Materials in Liquid Nitrogen Indian Journal of Cryogenics Vol. 33. No.1, 2008

[7] SandipB.Chaudhari, Prof. Sanjay P. Shekhawat, Mr.Ambeprasad S. KushwahaAdvanced Technology of Cryoprocessing for the Enhancement of Tool Material Machining Characteristics International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 4, April 2012) 612

[8] Harold A. Stewart,Cryogenic treatment of tungsten carbide reduces tool wear when machining medium density fiberboard Forest Products Journal Vol. 54, No. 2 March 2003

[9] HemantB.Patil, Prashant B. Chavan, Shoeb H. Kazi, Effects Of Cryogenic On Tool Steels-A Review, International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering, ISSN (PRINT): 2320-2092, Volume – 1, Issue – 1, 2013.




Effect of Iron Filings in Concrete Compression and Tensile Strength

Author: Ali N. Alzaed

Abstract— Metals waste materials create serious environmental problems, mainly owing to the inconsistency of the wastes streams. Iron filings are very small pieces of iron that look like a light powder. They are very often used in science demonstrations to show the direction of a magnetic field. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the possibility of using iron filings as one of the component of concrete mix. Four different percentage of iron filing were added to concrete mix to measure the variation which may be obtained in compression and tensile concrete strengths after 28 days. A 144 standard cubes and cylinders were performed and tested in this study using 0% (control), 10%, 20% and 30% of iron filing in concrete mix. It is concluded that, Concrete compressive strength increased gradually when iron filing added to the concrete mix where the tensile strength had a minor effect if the percentage of iron filing used more than 10%. Two formulas represented these relations are proposed which may be used to anticipated the percentage of increase crossponding to each quantity of iron filing added to concrete mix.

Keywords— Iron filing; Compressive strength; Tensile Strength; waste materials.

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[15] British Standard Specification, 1881-52, Method of Testing Concrete