Volume 8, Issue 6, June 2019



Object Oriented Application Paradigms and Software Development Processes

Authors: Girma Yohannis Bade, Fetenech Meskele

Abstract-The origin of the OOSE in evaluation and design of the software has expanded much and is now considered as one of the software integration processes. The Object Oriented Software Development is a set of the Object Oriented Analysis (OOA) models, Object Oriented Design (OOD) and the Object Oriented Programming (OOP) which provide powerful framework for development of the software. The main goal of the OOSE is the increasing the reusability capacity of the software, reducing the complexity and the software systems maintenance costs. This paper discuss Object oriented application paradigms and software development process. The application paradigms are specification, analysis and design, programming, and user interfaces which also consists software developmental processes like requirement specification, system analysis, design, implementation, deployment and maintenances. In both case class and object play a central role to ensure that software development is object oriented.

Keyword- Application paradigm, software, object oriented, software development process


[1] Michaelpiefel, coursework ‘information engineering’1996/97

[2] Systems Analysis and Design Kendall and Kendall Fifth Edition

[3] An Introduction to Object-Oriented Analysis and Design and Iterative Development by C. Larman. 3rd edition. Prentice Hall/Pearson, 2005.

[4] https://www.bestcomputersciencedegrees.com/faq/what-is-object-oriented-software-development/

[5] https://cs.nyu.edu/courses/spring07/V22.0101-002/11

[6] Bernd Bruegge, Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns and Java, 3rd Edition

[7] https://www.academia.edu/9790955/Object_Oriented_Software_Engineering_Models_in_Software_Industry





Surface Water and Groundwater Resources of Rift Valley Lakes Basin of Ethiopia: A Review of Potentials, Challenges and Future Development Perspectives

Authors: Ermias Mekonnen

Abstract- In this paper, a critical review of recent studies on surface water and groundwater resources potentials as well as the challenges and future development perspectives in the rift valley lakes basin of Ethiopia was conducted. The basin is endowed with a number of rivers as well as lakes of varying size with high environmental significance. The total surface water resource of the rift valley lakes basin is estimated at just over 5.6 billion m3/year and the estimated groundwater potential of the basin is 0.10 billion m3/year. The potential irrigable land of the basin is only 2.64%; and the gross hydro-electric potential of the basin is found to be 800Gwh/year. The water resources of the basin have enough potential for irrigation, hydropower and domestic water supply. However, these potentials are not fully utilized and translated into development because of many factors including limited financial resources, technical challenges, climate variability and lack of good governance in the water sector. As a result, attention must be given to interventions that moderate hydrological variability, mitigate the physical impacts of hydrologic shocks on the environment and watersheds, and arrest land degradation. Therefore, this review paper attempts to explore the interventions like infrastructure investments to provide storage and regulate river flows and runoff, and land and soil management practices to enhance the natural capacity of watersheds to moderate hydrology.

Keywords: Surface Water, Groundwater, Rift Valley, Potential, Basin


[1] A.M. Melesse et al. 2014. Nile River Basin, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-02720-3_6. Springer International Publishing Switzerland

[2] A.M. Mikhailovich D, B.A. Getahum. 2008: Water Balance and Level Regime of Ethiopian Lakes as Integral Indicators of Climate Change, the 12th World Lake Conference.

[3] Alemayehu, T.; Ayenew, T.; Kebede, S.2006. Hydrogeochemical and lake level changes in the Ethiopian Rift. J. Hydrol. 316, 290–300.

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[5] Awulachew. 2010. Irrigation potential in Ethiopia: Constraints and opportunities for enhancing the system. International Water Management Institute

[6] Awulachew, S. B.; Yilma, A. D.; Loulseged, M.; Loiskandl, W., Ayana, M.; Alamirew, T. 2007. Water Resources and Irrigation Development in Ethiopia. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute. 78p. (Working Paper 123).

[7] Ayalew DW. 2018. Theoretical and Empirical Review of Ethiopian Water Resource Potentials, Challenges and Future Development Opportunities. Int J Waste Resour 8: 353. doi:10.4172/2252-5211.1000353

[8] Lemma Abera Hirpo. 2016. Current Ecological Scenario of some Rift Valley Lakes of Ethiopia: A review. EC Agriculture 3.1: 570-580.

[9] MoWE. 2012: The Study on Groundwater Resources Assessment in the Rift Valley Lakes Basin in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Final REPORT. JAPAN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AGENCY KOKUSAI KOGYO CO., LTD.

[10] MoWR.. 2010. The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia-Ministry of Water Resources: Rift Valley Lakes Basin Integrated Resources Development Master Plan Study Project. Phase 3 Report: Lake Hawassa Sub-basin Integrated Watershed Management Feasibility Study. Part 1 and 2; Halcrow Group Limited and Generation Integrated Rural Development (GIRD) Consultants: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

[11] MoWR. 2008. Rift Valley Lakes Basin Integrated Resources Development Master Plan Study Project Phase 1 Final report. Halcrow, GIRD Consultants)

[12] .MoWR. 2006. Ethiopia: Managing Water Resources to Maximize Sustainable Growth, Country Water Resources Assistance Strategy, a World Bank Water Resources Assistance Strategy for Ethiopia, Addis Ababa. pp. 99.

[13] Mulugeta Dadi Belete, Bernd Diekkrüger and Jackson Roehrig. 2015. Characterization of Water Level Variability of the Main Ethiopian Rift Valley Lakes. www.mdpi.com/journal/hydrology.

[14] Nata T, Asmelash B, Bheemalingeswara K. 2008. Initiatives, Opportunities and Challenges in Shallow Groundwater Utilization: a Case Study from Debrekidane Watershed, Hawzien Woreda, Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia, Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR Ejournal. Manuscript LW 08 (008)X:22.

[15] Seleshi Bekele. 2010. Irrigation potential in Ethiopia: Constraints and opportunities for enhancing the system. IWMI

[16] Tenalem Ayenew and Dagnachew Legesse. 2007. The changing face of the Ethiopian rift lakes and their environs: call of the time. Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management. 12: 149–165; Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

[17] Utaile Y, Sulaiman. 2016. Assessment of water quality parameters of Lake Chamo-implications for freshwater fishes, Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Hill Agriculture 7(2):237-241.

[18] World Bank. 2006. Managing Water Resources to Maximize Sustainable Growth. A World Bank Water Resources Assistance Strategy for Ethiopia

[19] Zinabu G. 2002. “The Ethiopian Rift Valley Lakes: Major Threats and Strategies for Conservation”. In: Tudorancea, C. and Taylor, W. D. (eds.): Ethiopian rift valley lakes. Backhuys publishers, Leiden: 259-271.

4 - 10




Review o n Design & Investigation o f Automobile Disc Brake System

Authors: Nayan Dey, Dr. Purnima Shukla

Abstract- Multiple system has been studied and developed in order to meet safety requirements. Instead of having air bag, good suspension systems, good handling and safe cornering, there is one most critical system in the vehicle which is brake systems. Without braking system in a vehicle will put passengers in unsafe position. Therefore, it’s must for all vehicles to have proper braking system. Braking is a process which converts the kinetic energy of vehicle into mechanical energy. The disc brake is a device used to de-accelerate or stop the rotation of wheel. A brake disc or rotor usually made of cast iron or ceramic composite, is connected to the wheel. Friction material of brake pad mounted on a device called a brake calliper is forced by the action of mechanically, hydraulically, pneumatically or electromagnetically against both sides of the disc to stop the wheels. It’s important to understand action force and friction force on the disc brake with new material for the investigation how disc brake works more efficiently, which can help to reduce heat generation and provide better tribological results.

Keywords- Breaker Type, Longitudinal Beach Profile, Beach Slope, Offshore Beach Platform, Onshore Beach Platform.


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[2] V. M. Thilak , R. Krishnara Deepan & R.Palani ,―Transient Thermal and Structural Analysis of the Rotor Disc of Disc Brake ‖, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 2, Issue 8, August-2011 Issn 2229-551.

[3] Kotalwar S. P., Dr. S.H. Sarje, et al. ‟Emergency Brake System‖, International journal on innovations in mechanical and Automotive Research, vol-1 Issue 2, April-2015.

[4] S. Mahajan, Jessy Joy, et al. ‟A reaview on brake Assist system‖, International Journal of Engineering science and innovative Technology (IJESIT) ISSN:2319-5967, Vol.4, Issue 3, May-2015.

[5] Ali. Belhocine, Abu. Rahim Abu Bakar, ―Structural and contact analysis of disc brake assembly during single stop braking event‖, American Journal of mechanics and application, vol-2, August 2014, pgs.21-28.

[6] Prof. Wakchaure P.B. ―Parking brake lateral play in 4 wheelers, International Journal of scientific and Research publication‖, volume 3, April 2013.

[7] Faculty of Mechanical Engineering PSG Collage of Technology, ―Materials‖, in PSG-Design-Data-Book, Coimbatore, India, 2011, pp 1.11.

[8] Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Visvesvaraya National institute of Technology, ―Design data for Machine element‖, Denett& Company, Nagpur, India, ISBN-978-81-89904-63-0, June 2011.

[9] R. S. Khurmi, J. K. Gupta, ‟A Text book of Machine Design‖, S. Chand publication.

[10] Dr.Kripal Singh, ‟A Text Book of Automobile Engineering‖, Standard Publication Distributers, Vol-1


11 - 16




Wave Breaking Co-efficient and Digha Coastal Beach Profile

Authors: GirmNayan Dey, Dr. Purnima Shukla

Abstract-Wave properties are important influencer to tune the beach profile. And also beach profile controls the wave nature such as breaker type. Both wave properties and beach longitudinal profile organize each other through a balance. The said research paper is traced this incidents with evidence in Digha coastal beach. Through this paper, longitudinal beach profile and breaker type and their relationship have been sketched. To analyse the breaker type several parameters have been used, viz. beach slope (β), depth of water (d), wave period (T), Breaker height (Hb) and time between two successive waves (Δt). Breaker type configurations may vary between offshore (B0) and onshore (Bb) beach platform. Offshore breaker type is important for beach surfing zone.

Keyword- Breaker Type, Longitudinal Beach Profile, Beach Slope, Offshore Beach Platform, Onshore Beach Platform.


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[16] Jana, S., Paul, A.K., (2018): Genetical Classification of Deltaic and Non Deltaic Sequences of Landforms of Subarnarekha Middle Course and Lower Course Sections in Odisha and Parts of West Bengal with Application of Geospatial Technology, Journal of Coastal Sciences, vol. 5, Iss.1, 16-26.

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[19] Mondal, C., Dey, N., (2018): Carrying capacity assessment in coastal tourism center: a case study in Digha, West Bengal; Sustainable Development: A Dynamic Perspective (Edited Book Volume), Anjan Publisher, Kolkata, vol. 1, 175-182.

[20] Morley, C.K., (2002): A tectonic model for the Tertiary evolution of strike-slip faults and rift basins in SE Asia, Tectonophysics, vol. 347, Iss.4, 189-215.

[21] Mukherjee, A., et al., (2009): Geologic, geomorphic and hydrologic framework and evolution of Bengal basin, India and Bangladesh; Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, vol. 34, Iss.3, pp. 227-244.





New Trend of Leaching of Silicate and Sulfide Minerals

Authors: Dr. Tarek Abdel Wahab Ali El Barbary

Abstract-Although ore processing is an old technique, it is the technique that used to treat sulfide or silicate ores, a traditional and prevalent technique. Silicate ores as kaoline, clay, feldspare, nepheline syanite, silica sand, quartz, talc and zircon are treated with thermal melt. While sulfide ore as chalcopyrite, pyrite treated with thermal melt. But now a day facing challenge through new mineral hydrotherapy processes.


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[25] Jared L. Deutsch and David B. Dreisinger, " Silver sulfide leaching with thiosulfate in the presence of additives Part I: Copper–ammonia leaching", Hydrometallurgy, 137 (2013 156 – 164.

[26] Jared L. Deutsch and David B. Dreisinger, " Silver sulfide leaching with thiosulfate in the presence of additives Part II: Ferric complexes and the application to silver sulfide", Hydrometallurgy, 137 (2013) 165 – 172.

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[28] Mari Lundström, Jussi Liipo, Pekka Taskinen, Jari Aromaa " Copper precipitation during leaching of various copper sulfide concentrates with cupric chloride in acidic solutions", Hydrometallurgy, 166 (2016) 136 – 142.

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[35] Peter Baláţ and Marcela Achimovičová ―Mechano-chemical leaching in hydrometallurgy of omplex sulphides‖, Hydrometallurgy 84 (2006) 60 – 68.

[36] GU Yan, ZHANG Tingan, LIU Yan, MU Wang-zhong, ZHANG Wei-guang, DOU Zhihe, JIANG Xiao-li), " Pressure acid leaching of zinc sulfide concentrate", Trans Nonferrous Met. Soc.China 20(2010)s136-s142.

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[39] Natalya V. Fomchenko, Maxim I. Muravyov " Effect of sulfide mineral content in copper-zinc concentrates on the rate of leaching of non-ferrous metals by biogenic ferric iron", Hydrometallurgy, 185 (2019) 82 – 87.

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