S.No.

Volume 7, Issue 11, November 2018

1.

A Novel Approach towards designing highly secure Cryptography Encryption Algorithm

Authors: Neeraj Singh, Prof. Nitin Choudhary

Abstract- Information security is a progressing challenge for designers and programmers. To battle diverse assaults by programmers, there is a need for more reliable security innovations. In this research work a low complexity security algorithm is created. Utilizing different confounding variable elements is the quality of this calculation and makes retrieval of unique message by attacker more troublesome. I have first implemented DSEA [12] algorithm and found that the algorithm is easy to break or guess the keyword as there are only 26 different combinations of key is used. Then i implemented the algorithm which overcome the problem of DSEA [12] algorithm and also improve the outcomes. In this research I used 256 key combinations that make recovery of original message by attackers more difficult. All letters of key ought to be changed over into ASCII binary format keeping in mind the end goal to be utilized by security algorithm in the circular left rotation operation. The outcomes appear that our proposed security algorithm has less complexity as compare to Data Structure Encryption Algorithm based on circular queue to enhance data security (DSEA) (2018).

Keywords- Encryption, decryption, plain text, cipher text, symmetric key and Crytography.

References-

[1] Kahate, Atul., "Cryptography and Network Security", TataMcGraw-Hill Education, 2013.

[2] Ali J. Abboud, "Multifactor Authentication For Software Protection", Diyala Journal of Engineering Sciences, Vol. 08, No. 04, Special Issue, 2015.

[3] Ali J. Abboud ,"Protecting Documents Using Visual Cryptography", International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science ,2015.

[4] E. Barker, W. Barker, W. Burr, W. Polk and M. Smid,"Recommendation for Key Management-Part 1: General (Revision 3)", Computer Security Division (InformationTechnology Laboratory), 2016.

[5] Wu, Suli, Yang Zhang, and Xu Jing. "A Novel EncryptionAlgorithm based on Shifting and Exchanging Rule of bi-column bi-row Circular Queue", IEEE International Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering, Vol. 3 , 2008.

[6] Amounas, Fatima., "An Elliptic Curve Cryptography based on Matrix Scrambling Method", IEEE International Conference on Network Security and Systems (JNS2), 2012.

[7] S. S. D. Pushpa R. Suri, "A Cipher based on Multiple Circular Arrays", International Journal of Computer Science Issues(IJCSI ), Vol. 10, No. 5, pp. 165-175, 2013.

[8] Merkle, Ralph C., and Martin E. Hellman. "On the Security of Multiple Encryption", Communications of the ACM, Vol. 24,No.7, 465-467, 1981.

[9] Hankerson, Darrel, Alfred J. Menezes, and ScottVanstone," Guide to Elliptic Curve Cryptography", Springer Science and Business Media, 2015.

[10] S. Phull and S. Som, "Symmetric Cryptography using Multiple Access Circular Queues (MACQ)", Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for Competitive Strategies, 2016.

[11] P. Agarwal, N. Agarwal and R. Saxena, "Data Encryption Through Fibonacci Sequence and Unicode Characters”, MIT International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 79-82, August 2015.

[12] Ali N. Albu-Rghaif ; Abbood Kirebut Jassim ; Ali J. Abboud "Data Encryption A data structure encryption algorithm based on circular queue to enhance data security”, 1st International Scientific Conference of Engineering Sciences - 3rd Scientific Conference of Engineering Science (ISCES),. 79-82, 10-11 jan 2018.

1-7
2.

Effective Technical Competitive Analysis (TCA) in Program Management

Authors: Mylaudy Dr. S. Rajadurai, S. Shibu Anand, B. Suresh Kumar

Abstract – This paper reveals the stand-alone approach called TCA to cater the rapidly growing industrial needs. Now-a-days, TCA is a key in effective program management that improvise the value analysis and value engineering to meet organisational goals. The given representation of reference flow charts to enable the reader about a typical implementation in development process. TCA can guarantee the results for Cost effective, Best-in class products developed within a very short time. This is attained by the best practices are coupled under this system to eliminate the development process flaws. Programs that are managed by this approach consider all the vital requirements for a successful product development & mitigate the non-value added tasks where the precious resources usually deployed in conventional methods.

Keywords- TCA, tools, Value analysis, Value engineering, requirements, Knowledge

References-

[1] Bogan, C.E. and English, M.J. (1994). Benchmarking for Best Practices: Winning through Innovative. New York: Mc graw-Hill.

[2] Benchmarking Supply Chain Management: Finding Best Practices by Bjørn Andersen, Tom Fagerhaug, and Stine Randmæl SINTEF Industrial Management, Trondheim, Norway

[3] Del Giorgio Solfa, F. Benchmarking en el sector público: aportes y propuestas de implementaciónparalaprovincia de Buenos Aires (1a Ed.). Villa Elisa: Industry Consulting Argentina. 2012

[4] Integrating value methodologies into product development and program management processes at Pratt & Whitney Canada-Alain leblanc.

8-14
3.

Solar Photovoltaic Module Performance Characterization using Single Diode Modeling

Authors: Javed K. Sayyad, Paresh S. Nasikkar

Abstract—Solar photovoltaic (SPV) energy is most promising among all other renewable energy (RE) sources. Modeling of SPV module gives valuable results which will help to identify the behavior of SPV module in the normal operating condition. SPV module parameter is influenced by meteorological variables such as ambient temperature, incident solar radiation, wind velocity and humidity, etc. It will also help to calculate internal resistances and parasitics of SPV module. In this paper, the effect of variation in series and shunt resistance on the performance of SPV module is presented. Current–voltage (I–V) and powervoltage (P–V) curve are considered as the important performance measure for SPV module. The single diode model of SPV module having 36 SPV cells in series is simulated out through SPICE simulator. Simulation results show proximity to the labeled parameter at particular values of series and shunt resistance. This paper presents, derivation of the current equation for single and double diode model in simple steps. The dependency of electrical parameters (Im, Vm, Pm, F F, η) on series and shunt resistance variation is simulated, and the effects are discussed in detail.

Keywords- Solar PV, Single Diode Modeling, Double Diode Modeling, Series Resistance, Shunt Resistance

References-

[1] S. Kurtz et al., Opportunities and challenges for development of a mature concentrating photovoltaic power industry. Citeseer, 2012.

[2] D. J. Friedman, R. R. King, R. M. Swanson, J. McJannet, and D. Gwinner, “Toward 100 gigawatts of concentrator photovoltaics by 2030,” IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 1460–1463, 2013.

[3] K. Branker, M. Pathak, and J. M. Pearce, “A review of solar photovoltaic levelized cost of electricity,” Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 4470–4482, 2011.

[4] H. Ibrahim and N. Anani, “Variations of pv module parameters with irradiance and temperature,” Energy Procedia, vol. 134, pp. 276 – 285, 2017.

[5] R. Siddiqui and U. Bajpai, “Deviation in the performance of solar module under climatic parameter as ambient temperature and wind velocity in composite climate,” International Journal of Renewable Energy Research, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 486–490, 2012.

[6] C. Xiao, X. Yu, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Impact of solar irradiance intensity and temperature on the performance of compensated crystalline silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 128, pp. 427–434, 2014.

[7] Y. Hishikawa, T. Doi, M. Higa, K. Yamagoe, and H. Ohshima, “Precise outdoor pv module performance characterization under unstable irradiance,” IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 1221–1227, 2016.

[8] E. Kandemir, N. S. Cetin, and S. Borekci, “A comprehensive overview of maximum power extraction methods for pv systems,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 78, pp. 93–112, 2017.

[9] F. Vorster and E. Van Dyk, “Current-voltage characteristics of highconcentration, photovoltaic arrays,” Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 55–66, 2005.

[10] K. Engeland, M. Borga, J.-D. Creutin, B. François, M.-H. Ramos, and J.-P. Vidal, “Space-time variability of climate variables and intermittent renewable electricity production–a review,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 79, pp. 600–617, 2017.

[11] N. Kahoul, R. Chenni, H. Cheghib, and S. Mekhilef, “Evaluating the reliability of crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules in harsh environment,” Renewable Energy, vol. 109, pp. 66–72, 2017.

[12] K. Kawagoe, Y. Hishikawa, and N. Yamada, “Outdoor direct stc performance measurement of pv modules based on a sun-shading technique,” IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 1725–1730, 2017.

[13] S. Lineykin, M. Averbukh, and A. Kuperman, “Five-parameter model of photovoltaic cell based on stc data and dimensionless,” in 27th IEEE Convention of Electrical & Electronics Engineers in Israel (IEEEI), pp. 1–5.

[14] H. Bellia, R. Youcef, and M. Fatima, “A detailed modeling of photovoltaic module using matlab,” NRIAG Journal of Astronomy and Geophysics, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 53–61, 2014.

[15] H. Amiry, M. Benhmida, R. Bendaoud, C. Hajjaj, S. Bounouar, S. Yadir, K. Raôrs, and M. Sidki, “Design and implementation of a photovoltaic i-v curve tracer: Solar modules characterization under real operating conditions,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 169, pp. 206 – 216, 2018.

[16] T. H. Warner and C. H. Cox III, “IV curve tracer employing parametric sampling,” Jun. 26 1984, US Patent 4,456,880.

[17] E. Q. B. Macabebe, C. J. Sheppard, and E. E. van Dyk, “Parameter extraction from i–v characteristics of pv devices,” Solar Energy, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 12–18, 2011.

[18] E. L. Meyer and E. E. Van Dyk, “Assessing the reliability and degradation of photovoltaic module performance parameters,” IEEE Transactions on reliability, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 83–92, 2004.

[19] S. Rummel and T. McMahon, “Effect of cell shunt resistance on pv module performance at reduced light levels,” in AIP conference proceedings, vol. 353, no. 1, 1996, pp. 581–586.

[20] V. Tamrakar, S. Gupta, and Y. Sawle, “Study of characteristics of single and double diode electrical equivalent circuit models of solar pv module,” in Energy Systems and Applications, 2015 International Conference on. IEEE, 2015, pp. 312–317.

[21] A. Durgadevi, S. Arulselvi, and S. Natarajan, “Photovoltaic modeling and its characteristics,” in Emerging Trends in Electrical and Computer Technology (ICETECT), 2011 International Conference on. IEEE, 2011, pp. 469–475.

[22] F. Masmoudi, F. B. Salem, and N. Derbel, “Single and double diode models for conventional mono-crystalline solar cell with extraction of internal parameters,” in IEEE 13th International Multi-Conference on Systems, Signals & Devices (SSD), 2016, pp. 720–728.

[23] K. Ishaque, Z. Salam, and H. Taheri, “Simple, fast and accurate twodiode model for photovoltaic modules,” Solar energy materials and solar cells, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 586–594, 2011.

[24] O. W. Yin and B. C. Babu, “Simple and easy approach for mathematical analysis of photovoltaic (pv) module under normal and partial shading conditions,” Optik, vol. 169, pp. 48–61, 2018.

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4.

E-Commerce: Foundation, Obstacles and International Development

Authors: Abouzar Sadeghzadeh, Dr. Maryam Haghshenas

Abstract- The internet has provided new opportunities for worldwide trade. Geographical limitations between buyers and sellers no longer exists and companies are conducting business, trade and communications using modern ways. This chapter will start by providing the payment methods and general infrastructure of well-established e-commerce systems. With the emergence of new opportunities, new limitations are also evident which will be referred to later on. Although e-commerce is extensively used in terms of trade, it has not yet its complete potential. The latter sections of the chapter will discuss proposals for different e-commerce aspects regarding worldwide promotion of the relevant sector.

Keywords: E-commerce, E-business, B2C, Payment systems, Security, Barriers, Recommendations

References-

[1] European Commission (2010) – “Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the RegionsA Digital Agenda for Europe” COM (2010)245 final

[2] European Commission (2011a) – “A coherent framework for building trust in the Digital Single Market for e-commerce and online services”, Communication COM (2011) 942

[3] European Commission (2011b), ”Trade aspects of electronic commerce”, informal discussion paper for the general Informal Meeting of the Trade Policy Committee Services and Investments of the Council of the EU, 13-14 October 2011.

[4] European Commission (2011c) „Communication: A Single Market for Intellectual Property Rights‟ COM (2011) 287 final‟

[5] European Commission (2012) - „Copyright:Commission proposes easier music licensing in the Single Market‟ Press release 11/07/2012 Commission Regulation (EC) No 1255/2007, 22 April 2002 laying down public policy rules concerning the implementation and functions of the .eu Top Level Domain and the principles governing registration

[6] Intellectual Property Office (2011) – “Rights and Wrongs: Is copyright licensing fit for purpose for the digital age?”

[7] Kalakota, Ravi and Whinston, Andrew B. ―Electronic Commerce – A Manager„s Guide‖, Pearson Education, Inc..

[8] Kalakota, Ravi and Whinston, Andrew B. ―Frontiers of Electronic Commerce‖, Pearson Education, Inc.

[9] Rich, Jason R. ―Starting an E-Commerce Business‖. IDG Books, Delhi, 2000.

[10] Samantha Shurety. ―E-business with Net Commerce‖, Addison Wesley, Singapore, 2001.

[11] Turban et al. ―Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective‖, Pearson Education, Inc.

[12] Lelieveldt Consultancy”Research study on the integration of epayments into the online transaction process”. Amsterdam, December 12, 2001.

[13] Patel,W. Qi, CWills, ”A review and future research directions of secure and trustworthy mobile agent-based e-marketplace systems”, Information Management and Computer Security , 18(3) Emerald, pp. 144 - 161. ISSN 0968-5227 (2010).

[14] Regina Connolly, and Frank Bannister, ”Consumer Trust in Electronic Commerce: Social & Technical Antecedents” World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 34 2007

[15] Lee, T.O., Yip, Y.L., Tsang, C.M., and Ng, K.W. 2001. An Agentbased Micropayment System for E-Commerce. In J. Liu and Y. Ye, ed. E-Commerce Agents. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence vol. 2033 (Springer-Verlage Berlin Heidelberg). pp. 247-263.

[16] Laudon, K. and Traver, C.,”E-Commerce: Business, Technology, and Society”. Addison Wesley, Boston, MA. 2002.

[17] U.Shankar, M.Walker,”A Survey of Security in Online Credit Card Payments” UC Berkeley Class Notes, May 2001.

[18] Flore Fauconnier,”3DSecure: le bilan” Journal du Net/ Rudy Salin 17 March 2010. Http: / / www. journaldunet . Com / ebusiness / commerce / bilan-3dsecure / multiples-difficulties. shtml

[19] Hsiao-Cheng Yu, Kuo-Hua Hsi, Pei-Jen Kuo. ”Electronic payment systems: an analysis and comparison of types”. Technology in Society 24 (2002) 331-347.

[20] B. Clifford Neuman,”Security, payment, and privacy for network commerce”. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 13(8):1523-1531. October 1995.

[21] Tsiakis, T., Stheohanidews, G.:”The concept of security and trust in electronic payments” Computer & Security 24(1), 10-15 (2005).

[22] Michel Benaroch, Ajit Appari,”Pricing e-service quality risk in financial services” Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, November 2010.

[23] Refka Abdellaoui, Marc Pasquet ,”Secure Communication For Internet Payment In Heterogeneous Networks” International IEEE Conference, Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA),Perth, Australia, 20-23 April 2010.

[24] Knud B¨ohle,”Integration of Internet Payment Systems: What‟s the Problem?” ePSO Newsletter - No. 11, Spain, December 2001.

[25] Ian Molloy, Jiangtao Li, and Ninghui Li,”Dynamic Virtual Credit Card Numbers”, Financial Cryptography and Data Security Feb. 2007.

[26] A Pathak, J Cervantes, H Tjhen, L Luna,”Web Proxy Server” http: / / www. calstatela . edu/

[27] ECMA International. ”ECMAScript Language Specification”. ECMA- 262, 3rd edition, December 1999. Http: / / www. Ecmainternational. Org / publications / files /ECMA-ST / Ecma-262. Pdf

[28] Henry Song, Hao-hua Chu, Nayeem Islam, Shoji Kurakake, and Masaji Katagiri, ”Browser State Repository Service” In Friedemann Mattern, Mahmoud Naghshineh, editors, Pervasive Computing, First International Conference, Pervasive 2002, Z¨urich, Switzerland, August 26-28, 2002, Proceedings. Volume 2414 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, 2002.

[29] Directive 2000/46/EC dated 18th September 2000 http: / /eurlex.europa. eu / LexUriServ / LexUriServ. do? uri = CELEX : 32000L0046 : EN : NOT

[30] John P. Watson, Andres E. Larriera, Martin Kuhnemund, ”Evaluation of The E-Money Directive (2000/46/EC)” submitted to the DG Internal Market, The European Commission.

[31] Dave Chaffrey, “E-Business and E-Commerce Management” Fourth Edition, Prentice Hall Financial times, 2009

[32] Jakob Nielsen, Raluca Budiu, “Mobile Usability”, Nielsen Norman Group, 2012

[33] Ives and Piccoli, “Trust and the unintended effects of behavior in virtual teams”, Cornell university, University of Houston, 2007

[34] Horst Treblmaier, “Website Analysis”, University of Vienna, 2007

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5.

Design of Ship Dynamic Positioning Controller Based on Dynamic Matrix Predictive Control

Authors: Werneld Egno Ngongi, Du Jialu, Fortunata Kakwaya, Erick Phares Massami, Eliamin Kassembe

Abstract- This paper presents a design of ship dynamic positioning (DP) controller based on dynamic matrix predictive control (DMPC) technique. Rolling optimization and feedback correction approaches are used to design the controller. Through simulation studies and analysis of the dynamically positioned surface vessel, it can be proved that the controller can cause the ship’s position and heading converge to the desired predetermined values.

Keywords- Dynamic positioning, Dynamic matrix, Feedback correction, Predictive control, Performance index, Rolling optimization.

References-

[1] Bowman, M., Debray, S. K., and Peterson, L. L. 1993. Reasoning about naming systems.

[2] A. J. Sørensen, ―A Survey of Dynamic Positioning Control Systems‖, Annual Reviews in Control, vol. 35, no.1, pp. 123-136, 2011.

[3] V. Hassani, A. J. Sørensen and A. M. Pascoal, ―A novel methodology for robust dynamic positioning of marine vessels: Theory and Experiments‖, American Control Conference, June, 17- 19, 2013, Washington, DC, USA, 2013.

[4] T. I. Fossen, ―Handbook of marine craft hydrodynamics and motion control‖, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom, 2011.

[5] J. G. Balchen, N. A. Jenssen, E. Mathisen and S. Salid, ―Dynamic positioning of floating vessles based on Kalman filtering and optimal control‖, Proceedings of the 19th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control including the Symposium on Adaptive Processes, pp.852- 864, 10-12 December, 1980, Albuquerque, NM, USA, USA, 1980.

[6] T. I. Fossen, A. Grøvlen, ―Nonlinear output feedback control of dynamically positioned ships using vectorial observer backstepping‖, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, January, 1998, vol.6, no.1, pp.121-128, 1998.

[7] M.J. Morgan, ―Dynamic Positioning of Offshore Vessels‖, Petroleum Publishing Co., Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1978.

[8] P. Zalewski, ―Path following problem for a DP ship simulation model‖, TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, vol.5, no.1, pp.111-117, 2011.

[9] A.J. Sørensen, S.I. Sagatun and T.I. Fossen, ―Design of a dynamic positioning system using model-based control‖, Journal of Control Engineering Practice, vol.4, no.3, pp.359-368, 1996.

[10] S. Saelid, N.A. Jenssen, J.G. Balchen, ―Design and analysis of a dynamic positioning system based on Kalman filtering and optimal control‖, IEEE Transaction on Automatic Control, vol.28, no.3, pp.331-339, 1983.

[11] T. H. Lee, Y.S. Cao, Y.M. Lin, ―Dynamic positioning of drilling vessels with a fuzzy logic controller‖, International Journal of Systems Science, vol.33, no.12, pp.979-993, 2002.

[12] E.A. Tannuri, D.C. Donha, ―H∞ controller design for dynamic positioning of turret moored FPSO‖, Proceedings of the IFAC Conference on Manoeuvring and Control of Marine Craft, vol.33, no.21, pp. 263-268, August 2000, Denmark, Aalborg, 2000.

[13] T. Perez, A. Donaire, ―Constrained control design for dynamic positioning of marine vehicles with control allocation‖, Modeling, Identification and Control, vol.30, no. 2, pp. 57–70, 2009.

[14] W. E. Ngongi, J. Du, and R. Wang, ―Robust fuzzy controller design for dynamic positioning system of ships‖, International Journal of Control Automation & Systems, vol.14, no.1, pp.1–26, 2015.

[15] G. Xia, H.Wu, andX. Shao, ―Adaptive filtering backstepping for ships steering control without velocity measurements and with input constraints‖, Mathematical Problems in Engineering, vol.2014, 2014.

[16] X. Hu, J. Du, J. Shi, ―Adaptive fuzzy controller design for dynamic positioning system of vessels, Applied Ocean Research‖, vol.53, pp.46-53, 2015.

[17] G. Zhu, J. Du and Y. Liu, ―Model Predictive Control for Dynamic Positioning System of Ships with Unknown Time-varying Disturbances and Actuator Constraint‖, 6th International Conference on Information Science and Technology, 6-8 May 2016, Dalian, China, 2016.

[18] J. Du, X. Hu, K. Miroslav and Y. Sun, ―Robust dynamic positioning of ships with disturbances under input saturation, Automatica, vol.73, pp.207-214, 2016.

[19] V. Hassania, A.J. Sørensen, A.M. Pascoala and M. Athansa, ―Robust Dynamic Positioning of offshore vessels using mixed-μ synthesis modeling, design, and practice‖, Ocean Engineering, vol.129, pp.389-400, 2017.

[20] F. Benetazzo, G.I. Sauro and L.P. Raspa, ―Advanced control for fault-tolerant dynamic positioning of an offshore supply vessel‖, Ocean Engineering, vol.106, pp.472-4842015.

[21] X. Hu, J. Du and Y. Sun, ―Robust Adaptive Control for Dynamic Positioning of Ships‖, IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, vol.42, no.4, pp.826 – 835, 2017.

[22] A. Veksler, T. A. Johansen, F. Borrelli and B. Realfsen, ―Dynamic Positioning with Model Predictive Control‖, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, vol.24, no.4, pp.1340–1353, 2016.

[23] K.N. Tiwari and P. Krishnankutty, ―Fuzzy Logic Controller for Dynamic Positioning of an Offshore Supply Vessel‖, ASME 2017 36th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, June 25–30, 2017, Trondheim, Norway, 2017.

[24] L. Lu, H. Xu, W. Yu and H. Feng, ―Backstepping-Based Adaptive Control for Dynamic Positioning Using Orthogonal Neural Network‖, International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers, The 27th International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference, June 25-30, 2017, San Francisco, California, USA Publication, 2017.

[25] W. Li, Y. Sun, H. Chen and G. Wang, ―Model predictive controller design for ship dynamic positioning system based on state-space equations‖, Journal of Marine Science and Technology, vol.22, no.3, pp.426–431, 2017.

[26] T.I. Fossen, ―Marine control systems: guidance, navigation and control of ships, rigs and underwater vehicles‖ Trondheim, Marine Cybernetics, 2002.

[27] Y. G. Xi, ―Predictive Control‖, Beijing, China, National Defense Industry Press, 1993.

[28] H. Chen, L. Wan, F. Wang and G. Zhang, ―Model Predictive Controller Design for the Dynamic Positioning System of a Semisubmersible Platform‖, Journal of Marine Science and Application, vol.11, no.3, 361-367, 2012.

[29] T.I. Fossen, ―Guidance and control of ocean vehicles‖, New York, 1994.

[30] Ding, W. and Marchionini, G. 1997 A Study on Video Browsing Strategies. Technical Report. University of Maryland at College Park.

[31] Fröhlich, B. and Plate, J. 2000. The cubic mouse: a new device for three-dimensional input. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

[32] Tavel, P. 2007 Modeling and Simulation Design. AK Peters Ltd.

[33] Sannella, M. J. 1994 Constraint Satisfaction and Debugging for Interactive User Interfaces. Doctoral Thesis. UMI Order Number: UMI Order No. GAX95-09398., University of Washington.

[34] Forman, G. 2003. An extensive empirical study of feature selection metrics for text classification. J. Mach. Learn. Res. 3 (Mar. 2003), 1289-1305.

[35] Brown, L. D., Hua, H., and Gao, C. 2003. A widget framework for augmented interaction in SCAPE.

[36] Y.T. Yu, M.F. Lau, "A comparison of MC/DC, MUMCUT and several other coverage criteria for logical decisions", Journal of Systems and Software, 2005, in press.

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6.

Hydrological Determination of Turbomachinery Potential in Current

Author: Levent Yilmaz

Abstract- Electrical energy production from ocean current needs more computational research where we can easily determine the capacity about wave currents by numerical analysis. This is the reason why we have compared different computational methods to have one similar methodology about the determination of process control. Extracting electrical energy from ocean currents could yield in excess of 10 TWh/year (0.4 EJ/year) if major estuaries with large tidal fluctuations could be tapped. Because the density of water is more than 830 times that of air, an ocean current of just 2.3 m/s can produce electricity at a rate equivalent to a mean annual wind speed of 62 m/s. The best sites in the world with currents about 10 m/s are located mainly off of the west coasts.

Keywords- Hydrology, potential, turbomachinery, technology of current measurements, partial differential equations

References-

[1] http://www.angelfire.com/scifi/nuclear220, TUBITAK, TTGV Enerji Teknolojileri Politikası Çalışma Grubu 1998, Ankara. Unipede electricity statistics, Generation and Consumption, 1995.

[2] Krock, Jurgen-Hans,1990. Ocean energy activities in Europe, wave power development in Taiwan, Proceeding of the International Conference on Ocean Energy Recovery, Hololulu, Hawaii, USA, November 28-30

[3] http://members.tripod.com/MustafaCemal (Global Warming and solar energy)

[4] New Britanica Foundation, 1992. Wave Theory, Vol. 5,pp.61, 62,63.

[5] Wave Statistics from Ankara Government , 1990.T.C. Başbakanlık Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü, Araştırma Bilgi İşlem Daire Başkanlığı, İstatistik ve Yayın Şube Müdürlüğü, Ankara

[6] http://www.wavegen.co.uk, Applications, Products, Tecnology

[7] Michael P. Lamoureux ,,2006, The mathematics of PDEs and the wave equation, Michael P. Lamoureux , University of Calgary, Seismic Imaging Summer School August, Calgary.

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7.

Spectrometric Determination of Selected Heavy Metals in Plant Tissues in Kisii County

Authors: Isaboke Peter Abel, Njagi Njomo, John Onam Onyatta

Abstract- Heavy metals are non-biodegradable and therefore they remain in ecological systems and in the food chain indefinitely, exposing top-level predators to very high levels of pollution. Elevated levels of heavy metals in natural environment may have a detrimental effect on both human health and the environment. Apart from the direct impact on health or environmental problems, water or soil contamination can cause considerable economic and financial damage. Plant samples were air dried and gently ground to pass through a 2 mm sieve and homogenized and stored for analysis. Statistical analysis was conducted on the data to determine the mean and Pearson correlation. According to the analysis of spectrometric technique, the concentrations of the heavy metals in the selected sites were below the recommended levels. The determination of levels of lead, zinc, manganese and cadmium in plant tissues in Kisii County were to be used to sensitize the general population of Kisii County on heavy metal health effects and the importance of environmental conservation. The study was also to inform the authorities in environment management on the level of heavy metal pollution in the County hence providing a reference for future studies on the same.

References-

[1] Audu A. A, Lawal A. O (2006). Variation in metal contents of plants in vegetable garden sites in Kano Metropolis. J. Appl.sci.Environ. Manage. 10 (2): 105-109.

[2] Bose, B. and Hemantaranjan, A. (2005). Developments in physical, biological and molecular biology of plants. New Delhi, India: New India Publishing agency.Pp 105.

[3] Castro-Gonzalez, M.I. $ Mendez-Armenta, M. (2008). Heavy Metals: Implications associated to fish consumption. Environmental Toxicology $ Pharmacology, 26, 263-271.

[4] Draghici, C; Coman, G; Jelescu, C; Dima, C. $ Chirila, E. (2010). Heavy metals determination in environment and biological samples, In: Environmental heavy metal pollution and effects on child mental development- Risk Assessment and Prevention Strategies, NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Sofia, Bulgaria, 28 April-1 May 2010.

[5] Fong, F,;Seng, C,; Azan, A. and Tahi, M. (2008). Possible source and pattern distribution of heavy metals Content in Urban soil at Kuala Terengganu Town Centre. The Malaysian journal of Analytical Science; 12: 455-467.

[6] Masood, S. B, Kamran, S. and Babar E, B. (2005). Hazardous effects of sewage water on the environment focus on heavy metals and chemical composition of soil and vegetables: Institute of food science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan and Abdul Aziz Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal. Pp 4.

[7] Shrivastav, R. (2001). Atmospheric heavy metal pollution, development of chronological records and geological monitoring. Accessed from www.ias.ac.in

[8] Vieira, C, Morais, S, Ramos, S,Delerue-Matos, C. $ Oliveira, M.B.P.P.(2011). Mercury, Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic levels in three Pelagic Fish species from the Atlantic Ocean: Intra- and InterSpecific Variability and Human Health risks for Consumption. Food $ Chemical Toxicology, 49, 923-933

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8.

Tools for Evaluating Service Value

Authors: A. S. White, M. Censlive, D Nielsen

Abstract- This paper describes the development of useful tools to assist managers and engineers to choose between guiding parameters that are either numeric or subjective or both with equal emphasis. Such a procedure can produce a decision support process for service design or product design. The technique uses Dimensional Analysis (DA) that is rarely, if ever, used in service science with the method applied to two examples; a wheelchair-mounted robotic feeding arm’s computer interface, with choices in data input methods developed via collaboration, (co-creation) with its intended users and to the analysis of a Which™ evaluation for choice of best value cookers, both can be implemented with a spreadsheet.

Keywords- subjective decisions, co-creation; value; service dominated logic; dimensional analysis

References-

[1] Mckitterick, J.B., 1957, What is the Marketing Management Concept?, Frontiers of Marketing Thought and Science; Ed. Bass, F.M., Chicago: American Marketing Association, pp.71-81.

[2] Gronroos, C. 1984-94, “From Marketing Mix to Relationship Marketing: Towards a Paradigm Shift in Marketing”, Asia-Australia Marketing Journal, 2 (Aug), 9-21.

[3] Gummesson, E., 2002, “Relationship Marketing and a New Economy: It‟s time for De-programming”, Journal of Services Marketing, 16(7), 585-589.

[4] Vargo, S.L. and Lusch, R.F., 2006, “Evolving to a New Dominant Logic for Marketing”, The Service-Dominant Logic of Marketing: Dialog, Debate and Directions, Ed. Lusch, R.F. and Vargo, S.L., 3- 28, Routledge: Taylor Francis.

[5] Vargo, S. L., and Lusch, R. F. 2008, Service-dominant logic: Continuing the evolution, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36(1), 1-10; DOI 10.1007/s11747-007-0069-6; Available at: https://www.iei.liu.se/fek/frist/722g60/filarkiv2011/1.256835/VargoLusch-JAMS2008-Continuingtheevolution.pdf

[6] Shahin, A., 2006, “SERVQUAL and model of service quality gaps: A framework for determining and prioritizing critical factors in delivering quality services”, Service quality–An introduction, 117- 131, Andhra Pradesh: ICFAI University Press. Available at: http://itsm.ucdavis.edu/sites/default/files/files/page/SERVQUAL%2 0case%20study.pdf

[7] Lusch, R.F. and Vargo, S.L., 2015, Service-Dominant Logic: Premises, Perspectives, Possibilities, Cambridge University Press.

[8] Parasuraman, A., Zeithmal, V.A., and Berry, L.L., 1988, “SERVQUAL: A Multiple-Item Scale for Measuring Customer Perceptions of Service Quality”, Journal of Retailing, 64 (spring), 12-40

[9] Owen, D 2005 “The Betamax vs VHS Format War”, available at http://www.mediacollege.com/video/format/compare/betamaxvhs.html

[10] Cronin, J. and Taylor, S 1992. Measuring Service Quality: A Reexamination and Extension, Journal of Marketing, 56 (July), 55-67.

[11] Fogarty, G., Catts, R., & Forlin, C. 2000, “Identifying shortcomings in the measurement of service quality”. Journal of Outcome Measurement, 4(1), 425-447

[12] Jain, S.K and Gupta, G. 2004, “Measuring Service Quality: SERVQUAL vs. SERVPERF Scales”, Vikalpa: The Journal for Decision Makers; Apr-Jun, 29(2), 25-37.

[13] Carrillat, F.A., Jaramillo, F., and Mulki, J.P., 2007,"The validity of the SERVQUAL and SERVPERF scales", International Journal of Service Industry Management, 18(5), 472 – 490. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09564230710826250

[14] Vanpariya, B., Ganguly, P., 2011, “SERVQUAL Versus SERVPERF: An Assessment from Indian Banking Sector”, Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1783471 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1783471.

[15] Wang, MT, Wang, SSC, Wang SWC, and Lee, BCJ, 2010, Service Quality and Its Application in Medical Service, Proc. 2010 Int. Conf. on Engineering, Project and Production Management, 14th to 15th October 2010 Pingtung, Taiwan .

[16] Forsythe, P. J., 2012 "Profiling customer perceived service quality expectations in made-to-order housing construction in Australia", Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 19(6), 587 – 609, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

[17] Sunindijo, RY, Hadikusumo, B H W, and Phangchunun, T, 2014, “Modelling Service Quality in the construction industry”, Int. J. Business Performance Management, 15(3), 262-276.

[18] House of Commons, First Report: 1999-2000, “Improving the delivery of government IT Projects”, Session, Committee of Public Accounts.

[19] Royal Academy of Engineering, 2004. The challenges of Complex IT projects, Report of working group of RAE and BCS.

[20] White, A.S, 2006, „External Disturbance control for software project management‟, Int.J. Project Management, 24, 127-135.

[21] Maglio, P.P. and Spohrer, J. 2008, “Fundamentals of the Service Science”, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36, 18-20; DOI: 10.1007/s11747-007-0058-9; Springer.

[22] Goglia, J 2014 “Aircraft Engine Monitoring: How It Works and How It Could Help Malaysia Air 370 Crash Investigators”, available at http://www.forbes.com/sites/johngoglia/2014/03/13/aircraftengine-monitoring-how-it-works-and-how-it-could-help-malaysiaair-370-crash-investigtors/#1dc67e9c6775

[23] Gilb, T 2005. Competitive Engineering, Elsevier, Oxford.

[24] Eisma, R, Dickenson, A, Goodman, J, Syme, A, Tiwari, L and Newell, A.F. 2004 “Early user involvement in the development of information technology-related products for older people”, Univ. Access. Inf. Soc., 3, 131-140.

[25] Shneiderman, B. and Plaisant, C. 2005. Designing the User Interface (4th Ed), Pearson, London.

[26] Wickens, C.D., Lee, J.D., Lui, Y & Gordon Becker, S. 2004. An Introduction to Human Factors Engineering (2nd Ed), New Jersey: Pearson.

[27] De St Q Isaacson, E & M 1975. Dimensional Methods in Engineering and Physics, London: Edward Arnold.

[28] Rayleigh, (Lord), J. W. S. 1899 “On the viscosity of argon as affected by temperature”, Proc.Roy.Soc. LXVI, 68-74

[29] Buckingham, E 1914. “On physically similar systems: illustrations of the use of dimensional equations”, Phys. Rev., IV (4), 418-432.

[30] Langhaar, H. L. 1967. Dimensional Analysis and Theory of Models, London: John Wiley.

[31] Braglia, M and Gabbrielli, R 2000. “Dimensional Analysis for investment selection in industrial robots”, Int. J Prod. Res., 38(18), 4843-4848

[32] Parsons, B.N. 2001. The design and Evaluation of an interface and control system for a scariculated rehabilitation robot arm, PhD thesis, School of Engineering Systems, Middlesex University.

[33] Parsons, B, White, A, Warner, P and Gill, R, 2006, “Validation methods for an accessible user interface for a rehabilitation robot”, UAIS, 5(3), October, 306-324, ISSN 1615-5289

[34] Neilson J. 1994, Usability Inspection Methods, John Wiley & sons, 5 -6. ISBN 04710 187 75.

[35] Sears, A, Lin, M and Karimullah, A.S. 2002 “Speech-based cursor control: understanding the effects of target size, cursor speed, and command selection”, Univ. Access. Inf. Soc., 2, 30-43.

[36] Bates R and Istance H.O. 2003 “Why are eye mice unpopular? A detailed comparison of head and eye controlled assistive technology pointing devices”, Univ. Access. Inf. Soc., 2, 280-290.

[37] White, AS, Adams R, Prior S, 2009 Evaluating choice in universal access: an example from rehabilitation robotics, J. Univ Access Inf Soc., 8(3), 155-163, ISSN: 1615-5289.

[38] Which ™, 2016, Best Appliance Brands, January, 19-25.

[39] Emiliani, P.L and Stephanidis, C. 2005, “Universal access to ambient intelligent environments: Opportunities and challenges for people with disabilities”, IBM Journal, 44(3), 605-619.

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9.

The Indentification of Indicators in Tolerance of Biotic Stres Durability Determination in Maize Plant

Authors: Ali Beyhan Uçak, M. Cüneyt Bağdatlı

Abstract- This study was conducted to determine the stress tolerance markers in the corn genotypes (31D24, ADASA16, P1429) with biotic strase (S. nonagrioides Lef.) Resistance determined. The study was carried out in open field conditions in Siirt Province in Southeast of Turkey trial sites in three replications in 2015 and 2016 years with randomized blocks divided plot design. The average number of holes per year (2 years) / 100 internodi (number of years) was determined in the 31D24 genotype and the lowest P1429 genotype. However, the longest tunnel length (cm) was detected at the P1429 genotype, the lowest 31D24 genotype. It was determined that the tunnels were opened and fed from the varieties having high number of holes / 100 internods (31D24), but they did not show feeding behavior and the tunnels with long tunnel length (P1429) had long tunnels in the body. The highest yield (1039.83 kg da-1) for two years was determined at 31D24 with low live larvae + pupa and low tunnel length. The lowest yield (1008.16 kg da-1) was determined in the P1429 genotype with high tunnel length and high viable larvae + pupa. As a result of the research, it can be suggested that the number of holes of genotypes / 100 internodi in biotic strase (S.nonagrioides Lef.) Endurance lines in corn genotype lines, the tunel length and the number of live larvae are used as biotic stress tolerance indicator.


Keywords— Full irrigation, Corncob worm (S.nonagrioides Lef.), Maize (Z. mays L.) Population, Tolerance, Turkey

References-

[1] Kün, E. 1994. TahıllarIı (Sıcak İklim Tahılları). A.Ü. Ziraat Fakültesi Halkla İlişkiler ve Basım Ünitesi. Ankara. 317.

[2] Süzer, S., 2003. Trakya Koşullarında Sürdürülebilir Tarımın Toprak Verimliliği ve Ekosistemin Korunmasına Etkileri. Keşan Sempozyumu. 15-16 Mayıs 2003, Keşan.

[3] TÜİK, 2016. Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. http://www.tuik.gov.tr.

[4] Şimşek, N. Ve Güllü, M., 1992. Akdeniz Bölgesi’nde Mısırda Zarar Yapan Mısır Koçankurdu (Sesamia Nonagrioides Lef.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Ve Mısırkurdu (Ostrinia Nubilalis Hbn.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)’Nun Mücadelesine Esas Olabilecek Biyolojik Kriterlerin Araştırılması. Türkiye Iı. Entomoloji Kongresi Bildirileri 28-31 Ocak 1992, Adana, Pp. 501- 512.

[5] Kayapınar, A. Ve Kornoşor, S., 1998. Çukurova Bölgesi’nde Mısır Koçankurdu’nun Mevsimsel Çıkışı Ve Populasyon Gelişmesi. Proceedings of A Symposium On Corn Borers And Control Measures, 1-3 November Adana, 87-91.

[6] Castanera, P. 1986. Plagas Del Maíz. Iv Jornadas Técnicas Sobre El Maíz, Líérida. Plagas:1-24. Ministerio De Agricultura Pesca Y Alimentación, Madrid.

[7] Koç, N. ve Tüsüz, M.A., 1995. Mısır Sap Ve Koçan Kurtlarına Dayanıklı Çeşit Geliştirmede Zararlı Biyo-Ekolojisinin Araştırılması Ve Suni Aşılama Yapılacak Bitki Büyüme Devresinin Tespiti, Sonuç Raporu, Akdeniz Tarımsal Araştırma Enstitüsü Müdürlüğü, Antalya. (in turkish)

[8] Ortega, A., Vasal S.K., Mihm J., And Hersheand C., 1980. Breeding For Insect Resistance In Maize. P.372-419. In F.G. Maxwell And P.R. Jennings (Ed) Breeding Plants Resistance To Insects. John Wiley And Sons.Ins. New York

[9] Awadallah, W.H., 1983. The Development And Use Of Varietal Resistance And Other Non-Chemical Control Methods To Reduce Yield Losses Due To Stalk Borers In Maize. Final Report April 1977 To April 1983, 188 Pp., Project Fg-Rg-170, Cairo, Egypt.

[10] Guthherie W.D. and Bary, B.D. 1987. Methodologies Used For Screening And Determining Resistance In Maize To The European Corn Borer. In: Proceeding Of The International Symposium On Methodologies For Developing Host Plant Rezistance To Maize İnsects, Cimmyt, Mexico, Pp: 290-302.

[11] Mihm, J.A., 1987. Evaluating Maize For Resistance To Tropical Stem Borers, Arrmyworms And Earworms. İn: Proc. Of The International Symposium On Methodoligies For Developing Host Plant Rezistance To Maize Insects, Cimmyt, Mexio, Pp: 109-129.

[12] Turkay, M.A., Korkut K.Z., Özkan H., Ülger A.C., Sertkaya E., Güllü M., Sarihan H., Uçak , A.B., Bolat A. 2011. Mısır Koçankurdu (Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre) (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae)’na Dayanıklı Çeşit Islahı. Tübitak 107O804 nolu proje sonuç raporu, Mayıs 2011 Tübitak/Ankara. (in turkish)

[13] Guthrie, W.D. 1979. Breeding For Resistance To Insect In Corn. In Biology And Breeding For Resistance To Arthropods And Pathogens In Agricultural Plants, Proc. Int. Short Course In Host Plant Resistance Edited By Harris M.K., Texas A&M University Collage Station, Texas, Pp.290-302.

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10.

The Degree of Saturation with phosphorus (PSI, Phosphorus Saturation Index) in soils of the Central Region of Córdoba (Argentina)

Authors: Rollán, Adriana Ana del Carmen, Bachmeier, Omar Antonio, Moreno, Mario Alejandro

Abstract- The objective of this work was to estimate the degree of saturation of P (PSI, phosphorus saturation index) of the soil from its maximum adsorption capacity and confirm its suitability as a predictor of potential loss of P. The maximum adsorption capacity of P (Qmax) obtained from of the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and the degree of saturation of soil P (PSI) using Qmax and extractable P (PBray). The PSI obtained were in a range between 12 to 39%. The high PSI values observed at a depth of 0 to 5 cm suggest that these soils are vulnerable to P loss and determine the need to evaluate the potential for soluble P losses in runoff and drainage waters.

Keywords- Retention, Adsorption, Pollution, Transport, Desorption

References-

[1] Al Salama, Y.J. 2008. Added Behavior of Different Phosphorus to Soil types Deir Ezzor Governorate, in Syria. Tishreen University Journal for Scientific Research and Studies. Biological Sciences Series. 30(5) :193-201.

[2] Antelo, J., Arce, F., Avena, M., Fiol, S., López, R., and Macías, R. 2007. Adsorption of a soil humic acid at the surface of goethite and its competitive interaction with phosphate. Geoderma 138: 12-19.

[3] Bortolon, L. E., Bortolon, P.R., Oliveira, E.S, Almeida, G.C., Oliveira de R.G., Samuel, W., and Rogeri, D.A. 2016. Degree of phosphorus saturation threshold for minimizing P losses by runoff in cropland soils of Southern Brazil. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 51(9) 1088-1098.

[4] Bray, R.H. and Kurtz, L.T.1945. Determination of total, organic and available forms of phosphorus in soils. Soil Sci. 59: 39 – 45.

[5] Daza, M., Álvarez, J., and Rojas, A. 2006. Efecto de materiales orgánicos e inorgánicos sobre las fracciones de fósforo de un Oxisol de los Llanos Orientales colombianos. Agronomía Colombiana 24(2)326 - 333.

[6] De Smet, J., Hofman, G., Vanderdeelen, J., Van Meirvenne, M., and Baert, L. 1996. Phosphate enrichment in the sandy loam soils of west Flanders, Belgium. Fert. Res. 43:209-215

[7] Di Rienzo, J. A., Casanoves, F., Balzarini, M. G., Gonzalez, L., Tablada, M., and Robledo, C. W. 2013. InfoStat versión 2013. Available at http://www.infostat.com.ar. (Accessed December 2018)

[8] Ehlers, K., Bakken, L.R., Frostegard, A., Frossard, E. and Bunemann, E.K. 2010. Phosphorus limitation in a Ferralsol: impact on microbial activity and cell internal P pools. Soil Biol Biochem 42: 558–566

[9] Esberg C, du Toit B, Olsson R, Ilstedt U and Giesler, R. 2010. Microbial responses to P addition in six South African forest soils. Plant Soil 329: 209–225

[10] Fernández López, C., y Mendoza, R. 2013. Added phosphorus availability and re-distribution in both natural and cultivated vertisols. Ciencia del Suelo, 31(2)143-152.

[11] Galetto, S., Ferreira da Fonseca, A., Harkatin, H., Reifur, H.I., and Quirrenbach de Carvalho, I. 2014. Grain crops and forage yield resulting from the use of phosphates in integrated production system.Revista Ciência Agronômica (45)5:931-94

[12] Jiao,Y., Whalen, J.K., and Hendershot, W.H. 2007.Phospate sorption and release in a sandy-loam soil as influenced by fertilizer sources. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 71:118-124.

[13] Kruse, J. M., Ameling, A., Baum, C., Bol R., Kühn, O., Lewandowski, M., Niederberger, J., Oelmann Y., Rüger, C., Santner, J., Siebers, H., Spohn, M., Vestergren, J., Vogts, A., and Leinweber, P. 2015. Innovative methods in soil phosphorus research: A review. J.Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 178:43-88

[14] McLaughlin M. J., McBeath, T.M., Smernik, R., Stacey, S.P., and Guppy, A.C. 2011. The chemical nature of P accumulation in agricultural soils – implications for fertilizer management and design: an Australian perspective. Plant Soil 349(1-2)pp.69-87..

[15] Nair, V.D., Portier, K.M., Graetz, D.A., and Walker, M.L. 2004. An environmental threshold for degree of phosphorus saturation in sandy soils. Journal of Environmental Quality 33:p.107-113.

[16] Nelson, D.W., and Sommers, L.E.1996. Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In: Sparks D.L. (Ed.): Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3. ASA, SSSA, Madison WI. pp. 961-1010.

[17] Pautler, M.C, and Sims, T.J. 2000. Relationships between soil test phosphorus, soluble phosphorus and phosphorus saturation in Delaware soils. J. Soil Sci 64: 765-773.

[18] Pose, N. N., Baeza, M. C., Zamuner, E. C., Di Gerónimo, P., and Videla, C. del C.2016. Parámetros agronómicos y ambientales de fósforo en suelos molisoles con diferentes usos en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina Acta Agronómica, 65(4):375-382.

[19] Pose, N., Zamuner, E., y Echeverría, E. 2012. Grado de saturación y riesgo de pérdidas de fósforo en un molisol del sudeste bonaerense con papa. Ciencia del suelo 30: 1-8.

[20] Pote, D. H., Daniel, T.C., Nichols, D.J.,. Sharpley, A.N, Moore, P.A. , Miller, D.M., and Edwards, D.R. 1999. Relationship between phosphorus levels in tree ultisols and phosphorus concentrations in runoff. J. Environ. Qual.28:170-175.

[21] Rollán, A.A. del C., Bachmeier, O.A., Silva Rossi, M.M. y Moreno, M.A. 2017. Efecto de la siembra directa sobre los procesos de adsorción de fósforo en los molisoles del centro norte de la provincia de Córdoba (Argentina) Agriscientia 34(2):1-11

[22] Sánchez, C., y Barberis, N.A. 2013. Caracterización del Territorio Centro de la provincia de Córdoba. 1ª ed. Manfredi, Córdoba (AR): Ediciones INTA. Estación Experimental Agropecuaria Manfredi, pp 97.

[23] Sharpley, A.N., Daniel, T.C., Sims, J.T. and Pote, D.H. 1996. Determining environmentally sound soil phosphorus levels. J. Soil Water Conserv. 51:160-166.

[24] Tapia-Torres, Y., y Garcia-Oliva, F. 2013. La disponibilidad del fósforo es producto de la actividad bacteriana en el suelo en ecosistemas oligotróficos: Una revisión crítica. Terra Latinoam vol.31:3 pp.231-242.

[25] Zamuner, E. C., Lloveras, J., y Echeverría, H. 2015. Métodos agronómicos y ambientales de determinación de fósforo en Argiudoles del sudeste bonaerense. Ciencia del Suelo, 33(1):55-63.

[26] Zorzoli, F. 2018. ¿Límites ecológicos y fronteras tecnológicas en el negocio agrícola? Agricultura y ambiente en los sectores agrarios medios del noroeste argentino. Población & Sociedad 25(1):18-45

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11.

Energy Saving Measures of Residential Buildings in North Africa: Review and Gap Analysis

Authors: Samah K. Alghoul, Khairy R. Agha, Abdullateef S. Zgalei, Elhadi I. Dekam

Abstract- A common style case study as a typical residential building in Libya is studied. Single and combined energy efficiency measures were applied. The base model consumes 163.6 kWh/m2/year, where the space cooling load is devoted to be 4 times heating load, with the priority is to insulate roofs than walls. Improving the envelope thermal behavior reduces the energy consumption by 14.0 %. Upgrading interior lights leads to an annual saving of 7.7 %. Water heating strongly shares in the presence of peak demands for 9 months. Considering solar water heaters, reduces the required annual demand by more than 12 %. Using Photovoltaic Solar Panels, reduces the annual consumption by 19.3 %. Combining these energy efficiency practices results in savings of more than 54%, corresponding to a total energy reduction of 88.4 kWh/m2/year. For saving of 54% in residential buildings will result in a reduction of 19% of the national demand.

Keywords- Residential Buildings, Energy Loads, Energy Efficiency Measures, EnergyPlus, Electricity crisis.

References-

[1] General Electricity Company of Libya, Annual Report: Statistics 2012, Tripoli (2012).
[2] Agha K and others. The potential contribution of solar energy in the household water heating: Technical and economic feasibility (in Arabic language). Tripoli: 2013.
[3] KATHRYN B. JANDA and JOHN F. Busch, “WORLDWIDE STATUS OF ENERGY STANDARDS FOR BUILDINGS”, Energy, Vol. 19, No. I, pp. 27 – 44 (1994).
[4] L. De Boecka,b, A. Audenaertc , L. De Mesmaekerd, “Improving the energy performance of residential buildings: a literature review “, KU Leuven - campus Brussels (HUBrussel), Center for Information Management, Modeling and Simulation, Warmoesberg 26, 1000 Brussels, Belgium (2013).
[5] Janet L. Reyna1 & Mikhail V. Chester, “Energy efficiency to reduce residential electricity and natural gas use under climate change”, Nature Communication (2017) DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14916 | www.nature.com/naturecommunications
[6] Transition to Sustainable Buildings Strategies and Opportunities to 2050, IEA (2013)
[7] Global Energy Assessment Writing Team.. Global Energy Assessment: Toward a Sustainable Future. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511793677 (2012).
[8] AN ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES AND RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES – Chapter 5: Increasing Efficiency of Building Systems and Technologies, US Department of Energy, September 2015.
[9] Jaber JO. Prospects of energy savings in residential space heating. Energy and Buildings 2002;34:311–9. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-7788(01)00118-9.
[10] Alghoul SK, Gwesha AO, Naas AM. The Effect of Electricity Price on Saving Energy Transmitted from External Building Walls. Energy Research Journal 2016. doi:10.3844/erjsp.2016.
[11] Gwesha A, Nass A, Alghoul S. Determination of optimum insulation thickness of external walls in three Libyan cities on the basis of economic analysis of space heating (in Arabic). Journal of Engineering Research 2016;21:1–14.
[12] Alghoul SK, Hatab AM. Building Energy Efficiency : Optimization of Building Envelope Using Grey-Based Taguchi. Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology 2016;3:6192–7.
[13] Alghoul SK, Hatab AM. Optimizing heating and cooling energy consumption for lightweight concrete building wall. In: Strbac N, Zivkovic D, editors. 48th International October Conference on Mining and Metallurgy, Bor: University of Belgrade; 2016.
[14] Goodland RJA. The urgent transition to environmental sustainability. Tripoli: The Environment General Authority; 2013.
[15] El-Darwish I, Gomaa M. Retrofitting strategy for building envelopes to achieve energy efficiency. Alexandria Engineering Journal 2017;56:579–89. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2017.05.011.

 

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